- The House of Jamalullail is established at Perlis Darul Sunnah (now known as Perlis Darul Sunnah, Malaysia).
- Shaikh Ali bin Khalifa Al-Khalifa captures the fort and town of Riffa after the rival
branch of the family fails to gain control of the Riffa Fort and flees to Manama. Shaikh Mohamed bin Ahmed is killed at the battle, called the Battle of Hunayniya.
- January 3 – The Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdoms (海國圖志, Hǎiguó Túzhì) compiled by Wei Yuan and others, the first significant Chinese work on the West, is published in China.
- January 6 – Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross discovers Snow Hill Island.
- January 20 – Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, becomes de facto first prime minister of the Empire of Brazil.
- February 3 – Uruguayan Civil War: Argentina supports Oribe of Uruguay, and begins a siege of Montevideo.
- February 6 – The Virginia Minstrels perform the first minstrel show, at the Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.
- February 8 – An earthquake hits the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe, killing 1,500-5000 people.
- February 11 – Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata premieres at La Scala in Milan.
- February 14 – The event that inspired the Beatles song Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! is held in England.
- February 25 – Paulet Affair: Lord George Paulet occupies the Kingdom of Hawaii, in the name of Great Britain.
- March 8 – The Danish government re-establishes the Althing in Iceland as an advisory body, by royal decree.
- March 11–14– Eta Carinae flares, to become the second-brightest star.
- March 13 – Catawba County, North Carolina is created, and its first court is held in Mathias Barringer Jr.'s house.
- March 15 – Victoria, British Columbia, is founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post and fort.
- March 16 – The city of Petrópolis is founded by the government of Brazil.
- March 21 – The world does not end, contrary to the first prediction by American preacher William Miller.
- March 24 – Battle of Hyderabad: The Bombay Army, led by Major General Sir Charles Napier, defeats the Talpur Emirs, securing Sindh as a province of British India.
- March 25 – Marc Isambard Brunel's Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel under the River Thames and the world's first bored underwater tunnel, is opened in London.
- July 1 – Ulysses S. Grant (21st) and John J. Peck (8th) graduate from a class of 39 at the United States Military Academy, West Point.
- July 12 – Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy: Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement in the United States, receives a revelation recommending polygamy.
- July 19 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol; it will be the first iron-hulled, propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
- July 25 – Père Antoine Désiré Mégret, a Capuchin missionary, purchases for $900 the land that will become Abbeville, Louisiana, a town founded by descendants of Acadians from Nova Scotia.
- August 1 – Brazil becomes the second country, after Great Britain, to issue nationally valid postage stamps, with the release of its Bull's Eye series.
- August 15 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- January 8
- January 10 – Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)
- January 25 – Hermann Schwarz, German mathematician (d. 1921)
- January 29 – William McKinley, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
- February 6 – Frederic W. H. Myers, British poet (d. 1901)
- February 19 – Adelina Patti, Spanish opera singer (d. 1919)
- February 22 – Rudolf Montecuccoli, Austro-Hungarian admiral (d. 1922)
- March 7 – Tsuboi Kōzō, Japanese admiral (d. 1898)
- March 15 – Arichi Shinanojō, Japanese admiral (d. 1919)
- March 17 – Henry Ware Lawton, American general (d. 1899)
- April 4 – William Henry Jackson, American explorer and photographer (d. 1942)
- April 15 – Henry James, American novelist (d. 1916)
- April 25 – Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, third child of Queen Victoria (d. 1878)
- May 20 – Itō Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (d. 1914)
- May 21
- June 1
- June 3 – King Frederick VIII of Denmark (d. 1912)
- June 8 – Kálmán Széll, 13th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1915)
- June 9 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
- June 15 – Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer (d. 1907)
- June 30 – Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat, scholar (d. 1928)
- July 7 – Camillo Golgi, Italian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1926)
- July 17 – Penn Symons, British general (d. 1899)
- July 19 – Francis J. Higginson, United States Navy admiral (d. 1931)
- July 29 – Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (d. 1901)
- August 1 – Robert Todd Lincoln, American politician, businessman, first son of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln (d. 1926)
- August 10 – Joseph McKenna, American politician, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1926)
- August 20 – Christina Nilsson, Swedish operatic soprano (d. 1921)
- August 31 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1919)
- September 4 – Ján Levoslav Bella, Slovak composer (d. 1936)
- September 23 – Melville Reuben Bissell, American entrepreneur, inventor of the Carpet sweeper (d. 1889)
- September 29 – Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general (d. 1882)
- October 4 – Marie-Alphonsine Danil Ghattas, Palestinian Catholic nun, canonized (d. 1927)
- October 25 – Pierre Lallement, French inventor of the bicycle (d. 1891)
- October 28 – Dezső Bánffy, 12th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1911)
- November 19 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (d. 1914)
- November 25 – Henry Ware Eliot, American industrialist, philanthropist and father of T. S. Eliot (d. 1919)
- November 27 – Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (d. 1899)
- November 29 – Gertrude Jekyll, English garden designer, writer and artist (d. 1932)
- November 30 – Martha Ripley, American physician (d. 1912)
- December 3 – William Forbes Gatacre, British general (d. 1906)
- December 11 – Robert Koch, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1910)
- December 28 – Colonel Prentiss Ingraham, American author of dime fiction (d. 1904)
- July 2 – Samuel Hahnemann, German physician (b. 1755)
- July 7 – John Holmes, American politician (b. 1773)
- July 14 – Miguel de Álava, Spanish soldier, statesman (b. 1770)
- August – Sequoyah, Native American silversmith, creator of the Cherokee syllabary (b. c. 1767)
- July 22 – Marie-Madeleine Lachenais, Haitian de facto politician (b. 1778)
- September 4
- September 11 – Joseph Nicollet, French geographer (b. 1786)
- September 16 – Ezekiel Hart, Canadian entrepreneur, politician (b. 1767 or 1770)
- October 6 – Sir Archibald Campbell, 1st Baronet, British army general (b. 1769)
- November 10 – John Trumbull, American painter (b. 1756)
- November 28 – József Ficzkó, Burgenland Croatian writer (b. 1772)
- December 12 – King William I of the Netherlands (b. 1772)
- December 18 – Thomas Graham, 1st Baron Lynedoch, British Governor-General of India (b. 1748)
- ^ Hao, Yen-p'ing; Wang, Erh-min (1980). Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Late Ch'ing 1800-1911. Cambridge History of China. 11. Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0521-2202-93.
- ^ Leonard, Jane Kate (1984). Wei Yuan and China's Rediscovery of the Maritime World. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. ISBN 978-0674-9485-56.
- ^ The Illustrated History of Natural Disasters. Springer, Dordrecht. April 3, 2018. pp. 163–163. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3325-3_38. Retrieved April 3, 2018 – via link.springer.com.
- ^ "Emperor Street". World Digital Library. 1860–1870. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
- ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ^ "Royal Visit". The Bristol Mirror. 20 July 1843. pp. 1–2.
- ^ Fuegi, John; Francis, Jo (October–December 2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 25 (4): 16–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
- ^ "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace". Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
- ^ Menabrea, L. F. (1843). "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Scientific Memoirs. 3. Archived from the original on September 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- ^ "William Rowan Hamilton Plaque". Geograph. 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
- ^ Wen-Hsin Yeh, The Alienated Academy: Culture and Politics in Republican China, 1919-1937 (Harvard University Asia Center, 2000) p51
- ^ Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren, Building Shanghai: The Story of China's Gateway (John Wiley & Sons, 2013)
- ^ George Dennis, A Handbook for Travellers in Sicily: Including Palermo, Messina, Catania, Syracuse, Etna, and the Ruins of the Greek Temples (John Murray Publishers, 1864) p429
- ^ Jan Kozák and Vladimir Cermák, The Illustrated History of Natural Disasters (Springer, 2010) p55
- ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 266–267. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ Dickens, Charles (2006). Douglas-Fairhurst, Robert, ed. A Christmas Carol and other Christmas Books. Oxford world's classics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280694-9.
- ^ Buday, György (1992). "The history of the Christmas card". Omnigraphics: 8.
- ^ Joule, J. P. (1843). "On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat". Abstracts of the Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London. 5: 839. doi:10.1098/rspl.1843.0196. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- ^ Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5. It receives U.S. Patent 5,199 in 1847 and is placed in commercial use the same year.