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1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (dominical letter BA) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1944th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 944th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1940s decade.
Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
- March 1 – WWII:
- March 2
- March 3 – WWII: The Order of Nakhimov and the Order of Ushakov are instituted in the USSR.
- March 4 – In Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc., is executed at Sing Sing, along with Emanuel Weiss, and Louis Capone.
- March 6 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Narva, Estonia, destroying almost the entire baroque old town.
- March 9 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia, killing 757 and leaving 25,000 homeless.
- March 10
- In Britain, the prohibition on married women working as teachers is lifted.
- Resistance leader Joop Westerweel is arrested while returning to the Netherlands having escorted a group of Jewish children to safety in Spain.
- March 12 – WWII: the Political Committee of National Liberation is created in Greece.
- March 15
- March 18
- The last eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes.
- WWII: The Nazis execute almost 400 prisoners, Soviet citizens and anti-fascist Romanians at Rîbnița.
- March 19 – WWII: German forces occupy Hungary in Operation Margarethe.
- March 20 – WWII: RAF Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade's bomber is hit over Germany, and he has to bail out without a parachute from a height of over 4,000 meters. Tree branches interrupt his fall and he lands safely on deep snow.
- March 23 – WWII: Members of the Italian Resistance attack Nazis marching in Via Rasella, killing 33.
- March 24 – WWII:
- Ardeatine massacre: 335 Italians are killed, including 75 Jews and over 200 members of the Italian Resistance from various groups, in Rome.
- In the Polish village of Markowa, German police kill Józef and Wiktoria Ulm, their six children and eight Jews they were hiding.
- The "Great Escape": 76 Royal Air Force prisoners of war escape by tunnel "Harry" from Stalag Luft III this night. Only three men, two Norwegians and a Dutchman, return to the UK; of those recaptured, fifty are executed.
Allied troops land on the beaches of Normandy during D-Day
- June 1
- June 2 – WWII: The provisional French government is established.
- June 3 – Hans Asperger publishes his paper on Asperger syndrome.
- June 4 – WWII:
- Rome falls to the Allies, the first Axis capital to fall.
- A hunter-killer group of the United States Navy captures the German submarine U-505, marking the first time a U.S. Navy vessel has captured an enemy vessel at sea since the 19th century. Some significant intelligence data is acquired.
- June 5 – WWII:
- The German navy's Enigma messages are decoded almost in real time.
- British Group Captain James Stagg correctly forecasts a brief improvement in weather conditions over the English Channel which will permit the following day's Normandy landings to take place (having been deferred from today due to unfavourable weather).
- At 10:15 p.m. local time, the BBC transmits the second line of the Paul Verlaine poem to the French Resistance, indicating that the invasion of Europe is about to begin.
- More than 1,000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day.
- US and British paratrooper divisions jump over Normandy, in preparation for D-Day, including 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions of the United States.
- D-Day naval deceptions are launched.
- June 6 – WWII – D-Day: 155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France, beginning Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy. The Allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland, in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This operation helps liberate France from Germany, and also weakens the Nazi hold on Europe.
- June 7 – WWII:
- The steamer Danae (Greek: Δανάη), carrying 600 Cretans including 350 Greek Jews on the first leg of the journey to Auschwitz, is sunk, with no known survivors, off Santorini.
- Joel Brand is intercepted by British agents in Aleppo.
- Bayeux is liberated by British troops.
- June 9 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin launches the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive against Finland, with the intent of defeating Finland before pushing for Berlin.
- June 10 – WWII: 642 men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.
- June 13 – WWII: Germany launches the first V-1 flying bomb attack on London.
- June 15 – WWII: Battle of Saipan: United States forces land on Saipan.
- June 16 – At age 14, George Stinney becomes the youngest person ever executed in the United States.
- June 17 – Iceland declares full independence from Denmark.
- June 19 – A severe storm badly damages the Mulberry harbours on the Normandy coast.
- June 22 – WWII:
- June 24 – David Ben-Gurion presents the One Million Plan to the Jewish Agency for Israel, proposing a million-strong Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries as well as from Europe to Mandatory Palestine.
- June 25 – WWII
- June 26 – WWII: American troops enter Cherbourg.
- June 29 – WWII: 5,400 drown when USS Sturgeon torpedoes Toyama Maru.
- June 30 – WWII: 3,219 drown when USS Tang torpedoes Nikkin Maru.
Soviet soldiers fight in the streets of Jelgava
, summer 1944.
American medics helping injured soldier in France, 1944.
Crowds of French people line the Champs Élysées following the Liberation of Paris
, 26 August 1944.
- August 1 – WWII: The Warsaw Uprising begins.
- August 2 – WWII:
- Turkey ends diplomatic and economic relations with Germany.
- The First Assembly of ASNOM (the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia) is held in the Prohor Pčinjski monastery.
- August 3 – The Education Act in the United Kingdom, promoted by Rab Butler, creates a Tripartite system of education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
- August 4 – The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and others in hiding. All would die in the Holocaust except for Otto Frank, Anne's father.
- August 5 – WWII:
- The Warsaw Uprising:
- The Wola massacre begins. Between now and August 12, 40,000 to 50,000 Polish civilians will be indiscriminately massacred by occupying SS troops.
- The Holocaust: Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners.
- Cowra breakout: Over 500 Japanese prisoners of war attempt a mass breakout from the Cowra camp in Australia. In the ensuing manhunt, 231 Japanese escapees and four Australian soldiers are killed.
- August 7 – IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
- August 9 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.
- August 12 – WWII:
- August 15 – WWII: Operation Dragoon lands Allies in southern France. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division participates in its fourth assault landing at Sainte-Maxime, spearheading the drive for the Belfort Gap.
- August 18 – WWII: Submarine USS Rasher sinks Teia Maru, Eishin Maru, Teiyu Maru, and carrier Taiyō from Japanese convoy HI71 in one of the most effective American "wolfpack" attacks of the war.
- August 19 – WWII:
- August 20 – WWII:
- August 21
- Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization) opens in Washington, D.C.: U.S., British, Chinese, French and Soviet representatives meet to plan the foundation of the United Nations.
- WWII: Operation Tractable concludes when Canadian troops relieve the Polish and link with the Americans, capturing remaining German forces in the Falaise Pocket and securing the strategically important French town of Falaise in the final offensive of the Battle of Normandy.
- August 22 – WWII: Tsushima Maru, an unmarked Japanese passenger/cargo ship, is sunk by torpedoes launched by the submarine USS Bowfin off Akuseki-jima, killing 1,484 civilians including 767 schoolchildren.
- August 23 – WWII: In King Michael's Coup, Ion Antonescu, prime minister of Romania, is arrested and a new government established. Romania leaves the war against the Soviet Union, joining the Allies.
- August 24 – WWII:
- August 25 – WWII:
- August 29 – WWII: The Slovak National Uprising against the Axis powers begins.
- August 31 – The Mad Gasser of Mattoon apparently resumes their mysterious attacks in Mattoon, Illinois for two weeks.
American troops advance towards San Jose on Leyte Island, 20 October 1944.
- November 1–December 7 – Delegates of 52 nations meet at the International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago to plan for postwar international cooperation, framing the constitution of the International Civil Aviation Organization.
- November 3 – WWII: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest, are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
- November 7
- November 10 – WWII: Ammunition ship USS Mount Hood (AE-11) disintegrates from accidental detonation of 3800 tons of cargo in the Seeadler Harbor fleet anchorage at Manus Island. 22 small boats are destroyed, 36 nearby ships damaged, 432 men are killed and 371 more are injured.
- November 12 – WWII: Sinking of the German battleship Tirpitz by British Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers.
- November 14 – WWII: 2,246 drown when USS Queenfish torpedoes Akitsu Maru.
- November 16 – WWII: U.S. forces begin the month-long Operation Queen in the Rur valley.
- November 18
- November 22
- November 24 – WWII: German forces evacuate from West Estonian Archipelago.
- November 26 – American opera singer Florence Foster Jenkins dies in her sleep at the age of 76.
- November 27 – RAF Fauld explosion: Between 3,450 and 3,930 tons (3,500 and 4,000 tonnes) of ordnance explodes at an underground storage depot in Staffordshire, England, leaving about 75 dead and a crater 1,200 metres (0.75 miles) across and 120 metres (400 ft) deep. The blast is one of the largest non-nuclear explosions in history and the largest on UK soil.
- November 29 – WWII: Submarine USS Archerfish (SS-311) sinks Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano. Shinano is the largest carrier built to this date, and will remain through the twentieth century the largest ship sunk by a submarine.
- February 2 – Geoffrey Hughes, English actor (d. 2012)
- February 3 – Trisha Noble, Australian singer and actress
- February 5
- February 8 – Roger Lloyd-Pack, English actor (d. 2014)
- February 9 – Alice Walker, American writer
- February 10 – Peter Allen, Australian-born Academy Award-winning composer and lyricist (d. 1992)
- February 11 – Michael G. Oxley, American politician (d. 2016)
- February 12 – Moe Bandy, American country music singer
- February 13
- February 14
- February 15 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen leader, first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North Caucasus (d. 1996)
- February 16
- February 17
- February 20 – Willem van Hanegem, Dutch football player and coach
- February 22
- February 23 – Johnny Winter, American rock musician (d. 2014)
- February 25 – François Cevert, French racing driver (d. 1973)
- February 27 – Ken Grimwood, American writer (d. 2003)
- February 28 – Sepp Maier, German retired footballer
- February 29 – Dennis Farina, American actor (d. 2013)
- March 1
- March 2
- March 4
- March 5 – Peter Brandes, Danish artist
- March 6
- March 7 – Townes van Zandt, American singer (d. 1997)
- March 8 – Buzz Hargrove, Canadian labour leader
- March 11
- Graham Lyle, Grammy-winning Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist, known for writing several international hits for Tina Turner
- Don Maclean, English comedian and broadcaster
- March 17
- March 19
- March 21 – Hilary Minster, British actor (d. 1999)
- March 24 – R. Lee Ermey, U.S. Marine and actor
- March 26 – Diana Ross, American urban musician and was lead singer of The Supremes
- March 27 – Khosrow Shakibai, Iranian actor (d. 2008)
- March 28
- March 29 – Denny McLain, American baseball player
- April 3 – Tony Orlando, American musician
- April 4
- April 5 – Peter T. King, American politician
- April 6
- April 7
- April 8
- April 11 – John Milius, American film director, producer and screenwriter
- April 13 – Jack Casady, American rock musician (Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna)
- April 18 – Charlie Tuna, American disc jockey and game show announcer (d. 2016)
- April 19
- April 22 – Steve Fossett, American aviator, sailor and millionaire adventurer (d. 2007)
- April 24 – Tony Visconti, American record producer, musician and singer
- April 25 – Len Goodman, British ballroom dancer and television personality
- April 26 – Larry H. Miller, American sports owner (Utah Jazz; d. 2009)
- April 27
- April 28 – Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe, Belgian politician
- April 29 – Richard Kline, American actor and television director
- April 30 – Jill Clayburgh, American actress (d. 2010)
- May 1 – Suresh Kalmadi, Indian politician
- May 4 – Russi Taylor, American voice actress
- May 5
- May 8 – Gary Glitter, English singer
- May 9
- May 10 – Jim Abrahams, American film director
- May 12 – Sara Kestelman, English actress
- May 13 – Armistead Maupin, American author
- May 14 – George Lucas, American film director and producer
- May 15
- May 19 – Peter Mayhew, English actor
- May 20
- May 21 – Mary Robinson, President of Ireland
- May 23
- May 24
- May 25 – Frank Oz, English puppeteer and film director
- May 27 – Chris Dodd, American politician
- May 28
- May 29 – Helmut Berger, Austrian actor
- May 30 – Meredith MacRae, American actress (d. 2000)
- June 1 – Robert Powell, English actor
- June 3 – Edith McGuire, American sprinter
- June 4 – Michelle Phillips, American singer and actress (The Mamas & the Papas)
- June 5
- June 6
- June 8
- June 13 – Ban Ki-moon, South Korean politician and 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations
- June 16 – Henri Richelet, French painter
- June 17 – Bill Rafferty, American comedian and impressionist (d. 2012)
- June 21 – Ray Davies, English rock-singer and songwriter, co-founder of The Kinks
- June 24 – Jeff Beck, English rock musician
- June 29 – Gary Busey, American actor
- June 30
- August 1 – Yury Romanenko, Soviet cosmonaut
- August 2
- August 3 – Jonas Falk, Swedish actor (d. 2010)
- August 4
- August 7 – John Glover, American actor
- August 8 – Brooke Bundy, American actress
- August 9 – Sam Elliott, American actor
- August 11
- August 12 – Larry Troutman, American musician (d. 1999)
- August 13 – Kevin Tighe, American actor
- August 15 – Sylvie Vartan, French singer
- August 18 – Robert Hitchcock, Australian sculptor
- August 19 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer (d. 2016)
- August 20 – Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
- August 21
- August 23 – Saira Banu, Indian actress
- August 25 – Christine Chubbuck, American television reporter (d. 1974)
- August 26 – Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
- August 30 – Tug McGraw, American baseball player (d. 2004)
- August 31 – Jos LeDuc, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 1999)
- September 1 – Leonard Slatkin, American conductor
- September 2 – Gilles Marchal, French musician
- September 3
- September 6 – Christian Boltanski, French artist
- September 7
- September 12
- September 13
- September 15 – Graham Taylor, English footballer and football manager (d. 2017)
- September 17 – Reinhold Messner, Italian mountaineer
- September 18
- September 19 – İsmet Özel, Turkish poet
- September 21 – Hamilton Jordan, Jimmy Carter's first White House Chief of Staff (d. 2008)
- September 22 – Frazer Hines, British actor
- September 25 – Michael Douglas, American film actor and producer
- September 26 – Anne Robinson, British television host
- September 30 – Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish footballer (d. 2006)
- October 2 – Vernor Vinge, American science fiction writer
- October 4 – Tony La Russa, American baseball player and manager
- October 5 – Arnhim Eustace, Vincentian politician and 3rd Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- October 6 – Mylon LeFevre, American singer and evangelist
- October 9
- October 15
- October 20 – Clive Hornby, English actor (d. 2008)
- October 21 – Jean-Pierre Sauvage, French scientist; recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
- October 25 – Kati Kovács, Hungarian jazz, pop and rock musician
- October 28 – Dennis Franz, American actor
- October 30 – Ahmed Chalabi, Iraqi businessman and politician (d. 2015)
- November 1
- November 2 – Keith Emerson, British keyboardist (d. 2016)
- November 4 – Linda Gary, American voice actress (d. 1995)
- November 6 – Wild Man Fischer, Outsider musician
- November 7 – Joe Niekro, American baseball player (d. 2006)
- November 10
- November 11 – Kemal Sunal, Turkish comedian
- November 12
- November 17
- November 18 – Wolfgang Joop, German artist, fashion designer, and art collector
- November 20 – Donald DiFrancesco, American lawyer and politician, 51st Governor of New Jersey
- November 21
- November 24
- November 25 – Ben Stein, American law professor, actor and author
- November 25 – Michael Kijana Wamalwa, Kenyan politician, 8th Vice President of Kenya
- November 30 – George Graham, Scottish football player and manager
- December 1 – John Densmore, drummer, member of The Doors.
- December 2
- December 4 – Dennis Wilson, American singer, songwriter and drummer (d. 1983)
- December 5 – Jeroen Krabbé, Dutch actor and film director
- December 6
- December 7
- December 9
- December 11
- December 12
- December 17 – Bernard Hill, British actor
- December 19 – Tim Reid, American actor and comedian
- December 21
- December 22 – Steve Carlton, American baseball player
- December 23
- December 24 – Erhard Keller, German speed skater
- December 25 – Jairzinho, Brazilian football player
- December 26
- December 28 – Kary Mullis, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
- December 30 – Joseph Hilbe, American statistician and author
- December 31 – Jan Widströmer, Swedish artist
- February 1 – Piet Mondrian, Dutch painter (b. 1872)
- February 4 – Yvette Guilbert, French singer and actress (b. 1867)
- February 7 – Robert E. Park, American Sociologist (b. 1864)
- February 11 – Carl Meinhof, German linguist (b. 1857)
- February 12
- February 13 – Edgar Selwyn, American screenwriter (b. 1875)
- February 16 – Henri Nathansen, Danish writer and stage director (b. 1868)
- February 21 – Ferenc Szisz, Hungarian-born race car driver (b. 1873)
- February 23 – Leo Baekeland, Belgian-born American chemist (b. 1863)
- February 29 – Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Finnish politician, Prime Minister of Finland and 3rd President of Finland (b. 1861)
- March 3 – Paul-Émile Janson, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1872)
- March 4 – Louis Buchalter, Jewish-American mobster, head of Murder, Inc. (b. 1897)
- March 5 – Max Jacob, French poet (b. 1876)
- March 11
- March 19 – Noël Édouard, vicomte de Curières de Castelnau, French general (b. 1851)
- March 22 – Pierre Brossolette, journalist and French Resistance fighter (b. 1903)
- March 23 – Myron Selznick, American film producer (b. 1898)
- March 24
- March 31 – Mineichi Koga, Japanese admiral (b. 1885)
- July 1 – Carl Mayer, Austrian screenwriter (b. 1894)
- July 6
- July 7 – Georges Mandel, French politician and WWII hero (b. 1885)
- July 8
- July 12 – Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., American political and business leader (b. 1887)
- July 14 – Asmahan, Syrian-born Egyptian singer (b.1918?)
- July 15 – Joseph Sadi-Lecointe, French aviator (b. 1891)
- July 18 – Rex Whistler, English artist (b. 1905)
- July 20 – Mildred Harris, American actress (b. 1901)
- July 21
- July 25
- July 26 – Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (b. 1877)
- July 27 – Perry McGillivray, American Olympic swmmer (b. 1893)
- July 30 – Lee Powell, American actor (b. 1908)
- July 31 – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot and writer (b. 1900)
- October 1 – Rudolf Schmundt, German general (b. 1896)
- October 2 or 3 – Benjamin Fondane, Romanian-French Symbolist poet, critic and existentialist philosopher (gassed in Auschwitz concentration camp) (b. 1898)
- October 4 – Al Smith, American politician (b. 1873)
- October 8 – Wendell Willkie, American politician (b. 1892)
- October 12 – Ramón Castillo, 25th President of Argentina (b. 1873)
- October 14 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (suicide) (b. 1891)
- October 21 – Alois Kayser, German missionary (b. 1877)
- October 22 – Richard Bennett, American actor (b. 1870)
- October 21 – Hilma af Klint, Swedish abstract painter (b. 1862)
- October 23 – Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
- October 24 – Shōji Nishimura, Japanese vice admiral (killed in action) (b. 1889)
- October 26
- November 2 – Thomas Midgley, Jr., American chemist and inventor (b. 1889)
- November 4 – John Dill, Field Marshal of the British Army (b. 1881)
- November 5 – Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1873)
- November 7 – Hannah Szenes, Hungarian World War II heroine (executed) (b. 1921)
- November 10 – Wang Jingwei, Chinese statesman, President of the Nanjing-based and Japanese-supported collaborationist Government of the Republica of China (b. 1883)
- November 12 – George F. Houston, American actor (b. 1896)
- November 14 – Trafford Leigh-Mallory, British aviator and Royal Air Force Air Chief Marshal (plane crash) (b. 1892)
- November 22
- November 25 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis, 1st commissioner of Major League Baseball (b. 1866)
- November 26 – Florence Foster Jenkins, American socialite and operatic soprano (b. 1868)
- ^ Ken Ford (2004). Cassino 1944: Breaking the Gustav Line, p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84176-623-2
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- ^ a b "Greatest Maritime Disasters". International Registry of Sunken Ships. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
- ^ "More Maritime Disasters of World War II". George Duncan. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
- ^ a b "List of sunken ships in Pacific War (太平洋戦争時の喪失船舶明細表)" (PDF). Sunken Ships Record Association (戦没船を記録する会). Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- ^ Kynaston, David (2007). Austerity Britain 1945–1951. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-0-7475-7985-4.
- ^ "Convoy Take Ichi" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ Small, Ken; Rogerson, Mark (1988). The Forgotten Dead – Why 946 American Servicemen Died off the Coast of Devon in 1944 – and the Man who Discovered their True Story. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-0309-5.
- ^ Fenton, Ben (26 April 2004). "The disaster that could have scuppered Overlord". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- ^ Savill, Richard (26 April 2004). "Last of torpedo survivors remembers brave buddies". The Daily Telegraph.
- ^ Wasley, Gerald (1994). Devon at War, 1939–1945. Tiverton: Devon Books. p. 157. ISBN 0-86114-885-1.
- ^ a b "Year by Year 1944" – History Channel International
- ^ Kaiser, Don (2011). "K-Ships Across the Atlantic" (PDF). Naval Aviation News. 93 (2). Retrieved 2011-09-23.
- ^ "Blimp Squadron 14". Warwingsart.com. Retrieved 2011-09-23.
- ^ Asperger, H. (1991) . "'Autistic psychopathy' in childhood". In Frith, Uta. Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press. pp. 37–92. ISBN 0-521-38448-6.
- ^ Asperger, Hans (3 June 1944). "Die "Autistischen Psychopathen" im Kindesalter". Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. 117 (1): 76–136. doi:10.1007/BF01837709. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- ^ Foot, M. R. D. (1999). SOE: An Outline History of the Special Operations Executive 1940–46. London: Pimlico. p. 143. ISBN 0-7126-6585-4.
- ^ a b c d Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
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- ^ Radinger, Will; Schick, Walter (1996). Me 262 (in German). Berlin: Avantic Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-925505-21-0.
- ^ "Education Act, 1944" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-10-21.
- ^ Prose, Francine (2014-08-01). "Anne Frank's final entry". CNN. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
On Friday, August 4, 1944... a car pulled up in front of a spice warehouse at 263 Prinsengracht in Amsterdam. Inside the car were an Austrian Gestapo officer and his Dutch subordinates, who, acting on a tip-off (whose source has never been identified), had come to arrest the eight Jews who had been hiding for two years in an attic above the warehouse. The eight prisoners were taken to a deportation camp, from where they were sent to Auschwitz. Only one of them, Otto Frank, would survive.
- ^ Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3.
- ^ "Convoy Hi-71 (ヒ71船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ van der Kuil, Peter (March 2003). "List of Casualties". The Sinking of the Junyo Maru.
- ^ Van der Zee, Henri A. (1982). The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–5. London: Norman & Hobhouse. ISBN 978-0-906908-71-6.
- ^ Larsen, Henry A. (1967). The Big Ship: an autobiography. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
- ^ "Across the Northwest Passage: The Larsen Expeditions". University of Calgary. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- ^ "Antwerp, "City of Sudden Death"". V2Rocket.com. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- ^ Gile, Chester A. (February 1963). "The Mount Hood Explosion". Proceedings. United States Naval Institute.
- ^ a b "Convoy Hi-81 (ヒ81船団)" (PDF). All Japan Seamen's Union. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ As Kenneth Branagh is to do over forty years later in his successful remake.
- ^ Reed, John (1977). "Largest Wartime Explosions: 21 Maintenance Unit, RAF Fauld, Staffs. November 27, 1944". After the Battle. 18: 35–40. ISSN 0306-154X.
- ^ Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in WWII. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-55750-149-3.
- ^ "The Sinking of SS Leopoldville". uboat.net. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
- ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 392–394. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- ^ "Battle of Britain". ww2db.com. Retrieved 2016-05-16.
- ^ Guggisberg, Charles Albert Walter (1961). Simba: the life of the lion. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.