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China Railways CRH2 EMU
In service 2007–present
Manufacturer Kawasaki Heavy Industries,
CRRC Qingdao Sifang
Family name Shinkansen
Number built CRH2A: 60+40 trainsets (800 cars)
CRH2B: 20 trainsets (320 cars)
CRH2C (stage 1): 30 trainsets (240 cars)
CRH2C (stage 2): 20 trainsets (160 cars)
CRH2E: 20 trainsets (320 cars)
Formation CRH2A: 8 cars per trainset (4M4T)
CRH2B/E: 16 cars per trainset (8M8T)
CRH2C: 8 cars per trainset (6M2T)
Capacity CRH2A: 610/571/562/588/600/608
CRH2B: 1230
CRH2C: 610/626
CRH2E: 630/880(CRH2E-2463, 2464 and 2465)
Operator(s) China Railway
- CR Beijing
- CR Shanghai
- CR Jinan
- CR Xi'an
- CR Wuhan
- CR Nanchang
- CR Zhengzhou
- CR Taiyuan
- CR Chengdu
- CR Guangzhou
- CR Nanning
- CR Shenyang
Line(s) served Jinghu Railway, Jingguang Railway, Hukun Railway, Hening PFL
Train length CRH2A/C: 201.4 m (661 ft)
CRH2B/E: 401.4 m (1,317 ft)
Width 3,380 mm (11 ft 1 in)
Height 3,700 mm (12 ft 2 in)
Platform height 1,250 mm (4 ft 1 in)
Maximum speed CRH2A/B/E: 250 km/h (155 mph)
CRH2C (stage 1): 350 km/h (217 mph)
CRH2C (stage 2): 380 km/h (236 mph)
Traction system IGBT VVVF inverter control
(Mitsubishi Electric, Hitachi or Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric)
Power output CRH2A: 4.8 MW (6,400 hp)
CRH2B/E: 9.6 MW (12,900 hp)
CRH2C (stage 1):
7.2 MW (9,700 hp)
CRH2C (stage 2):
8.76 MW (11,750 hp)
Transmission AC-DC-AC
Electric system(s) 25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead catenary
Current collection method Pantograph
Braking system(s) Regenerative, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The CRH2 Hexie Hao (simplified Chinese: 和谐号; traditional Chinese: 和諧號; pinyin: Héxié Hào; literally: "Harmony Express") is one of the high-speed train models in China. Originally, the CRH2 was based on the E2-1000 Series Shinkansen design from Japan with the license purchased from a consortium formed of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and Hitachi, and represents the second Shinkansen train model to be exported.

In 2004, the Ministry of Railway in China purchased an initial 60 sets of the train from Kawasaki Heavy Industries with a maximum speed of 250 km/h (155 mph). However, the newer versions of the CRH2 are not related to the E2-1000 Series despite having the same exterior shell.[1]


The CRH2 developed from the E2 Series Shinkansen
CRH2A-2260&2011 at Xiamen Railway Station


On October 20, 2004, the Ministry of Railway in China ordered 60 sets of CRH2A trains from Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan. Along with 60 sets of Bombardier's Regina-based CRH1A, and 40 sets of Alstom's Pendolino-based CRH5A, these train sets are consider as first batch of CRH trains.

Each of the CRH2A set consists of 8 cars. The first 3 sets (CRH2-001A - CRH2-003A) were built in Japan, the next 6 sets (CRH2-004A - CRH2-009A) were delivered in complete knock down form and assembled by CSR Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock. The remaining 51 sets (CRH2-010A - CRH2-060A) were built by Sifang through technology transfer from Japan.

The first train arrived at Qingdao port on March 8, 2006 with little fanfare, and was not even publicized in China. These trains have a maximum operation speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) and started providing high-speed train service from April 18, 2007, the date of the sixth national railway speed-up.

According to Chinese and Japanese media, CRH2A trains started test trials ahead of commercial operation on the Shanghai-Hangzhou and Shanghai-Nanjing lines on January 28, 2007.

On September 14, 2010, the Chinese MOR ordered additional 40 sets of CRH2A trains (CRH2-151A - CRH2-190A) from CSR Sifang.


CRH2B at Wuxi Station

In November 2007, the Ministry of Railway in China ordered 10 CRH2 sets with 16 cars per set (8M8T). These trains have been given designations CRH2B (CRH2-111B - CRH2-120B). Each CRH2B has three 1st seating cars (ZY), twelve 2nd seating cars (ZE), and one dining car (CA). Designed maximum operation speed is 250 km/h (155 mph) with a power of 9,600 kW (12,900 hp).

The first units were delivered on June 29, 2008,[2][3] and came into service on the Hefei–Nanjing Passenger Railway on August 1, 2008.[4]

CRH2C (CRH2-300)


After the introduction of the modified E2-1000 Series, Sifang built its own CRH2 with a maximum safe operating speed of 350 km/h (220 mph). The original train sets imported from Kawasaki had a maximum safe operating speed of 250 km/h (160 mph).

During June 2005 and September 2005, The Chinese Ministry of Railways launched bidding for High speed trains with a top speed over 300 km/h (190 mph). Along with Siemens's Velaro-based CRH3C, CSR Sifang bid 60 sets of CRH2C, includes 30 sets of CRH2C stage one with a top speed of 300 km/h (190 mph), and 30 sets of CRH2C stage two with a top speed of 350 km/h (220 mph).

In development and research of the 350 km/h (220 mph) high speed train, The CRH2-300 project was launched by Chinese MOR and CSR. In 2006 the China Development Bank provided CNY 15 billion developmental financial loans to CSR Group for the projects of 200–300 km/h (120–190 mph) high speed trains.[5] Over 50 academics, 150,000 technicians, 600 contractors were involved in the project.[6] This train's livery is not like the CRH2A. Its blue stripe does not end at the fronts of trainsets.

CRH2C stage one[edit]


CRH2C Stage one is a modified version of CRH2A. It has a maximum operating speed up to 300 km/h (190 mph) by replacing two intermediate trailer cars with motorized cars. Equipped with an array of the state-of-the-art technologies, including aluminum alloy body with a reduced weight, high speed turntable, high speed pantograph, and optic-fiber based integrated control system.[7]

Chinese MOR ordered 30 sets of CRH2C stage one, name code CRH2-061C - CRH2-090C. The first set, CRH2-061C was unveiled on December 22, 2007.[8][9]

During the test on April 22, 2008, CRH2-061C reached a top speed of over 370 km/h (230 mph) on Beijing-Tianjin high-speed rail.[10]

During the test on December 11, 2009, CRH2-061C reached a top speed of 394.2 km/h (244.9 mph) on Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed rail.[11]

Together with CRH3C, the CRH2C stage one first came into service on Beijing-Tianjin Intercity high-speed rail on August 1, 2008, and all CRH2C stage one trains have been replaced by CRH3C in April, 2009. Currently, most of these trains are serving on the Shanghai-Nanjing high speed rail.

CRH2C stage two[edit]

CRH2C Stage two is the "re-design" version of the CRH2. Some of the details, like the aluminum body structure, noise reduction technology & reduction technique, draw on the CRH3C. According to CSR Sifang, the improvements include the following aspects:

  • The axle weight of the bogie increased from 14 to 15 tonnes (31,000 to 33,000 lb), to prevent tremble of the train body at a higher speed,[6] the gear ratio has been optimized from 3.036 to 2.379, the critical instability speed is 550 km/h (340 mph).
  • The thermal capacity of the bogie has been increased, which satisfied the continuous operation at 350 km/h (220 mph)
  • With the YQ-365 type AC traction motor. It has a maximum operating speed up to 350 km/h (220 mph) with a power of 8,760 kW (11,750 hp).
  • The rigidity of the car body has been increased to lower the noise and vibration.
  • Optimized car body and window design for better air tightness and strength.
  • Added pressure protection system to avoid pressure fluctuation in the compartment and improvement of comfort.
  • Optimized design of the roof antenna, exterior windscreen and windows for a lower air resistance.[12]

Chinese MOR ordered 30 sets of CRH2C stage two, name code CRH2-091C - CRH2-110C and CRH2-141C - CRH2-150C. The first set, CRH2-091C was unveiled in January 2010 and came into service on Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed rail in February, 2010.[13]


A CRH2E arriving Beijing West Railway Station as D924 Guangzhou-Beijing overnight train in 2015.
A CRH2E old style sleeper car
The 2017 version of CRH2E with double-deck windows on the outside.

In November and December 2007, the Ministry of Railway in China ordered 20 CRH2 sleeper trains with 16 cars per set (8M8T). These trains are modified CRH2Bs, and have been given designations CRH2E (numbered CRH2-121E - CRH2-140E). Each CRH2E has thirteen 1st class sleeping cars (WR), two 2nd class seating cars (ZE), and one buffet car (CA) or one second class/dining car (ZEC). Designed maximum operation speed is 250 km/h (155 mph) with a power of 9600 kW.

The first batch of CRH2E, CRH2-121E - CRH2-126E, came into service on Beijing-Shanghai railway on December 21, 2008.[2][14] On 23 July 2011, one sleeper coach on CRH2-139E trainset has been derailed in the 2011 Wenzhou train collision, together with CRH1-046B.

The rest of CRH2Es were deployed on Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway since January 2015, operating overnight sleeper trains between Beijing and Guangzhou (including some trains to Shenzhen).

All New CRH2E[edit]

Since CRH2E-2463, brand new CRH2E rolls off the production line in the beginning of 2017. The layout inside CRH2E-2463 is different from the previous ones. Its corridor dominates the centre of the sleeping car, while on either side the bunk beds are fixed parallel.[15] Each bed has a layout similar to airplane first class, and passengers are no longer sharing the room. Instead, each passenger has separate compartment looks like a capsule. Each capsule comes with independent tables, outlets, lamps, hangers and curtains. The hull of the train is redesigned so the noise level is lower compare to previous models.[16]


CRH2C-2150 Experimental testbed for CRH380A. CRH2C-2150 at Shanghai Hongqiao Station.

In 2008, the Chinese MOR & CSR launched CRH2-380 project, the main purpose is to develop new-generation of high speed trains with maximum operation speed of 380 km/h (240 mph). CRH2 is one of the fundamental platforms of the new trains, which is designated as CRH380A.


At the time of the sixth national railway speed-up, at least 37 CRH2A sets had been delivered by Kawasaki and Sifang.[17] In 2008, all 60 CRH2A sets had been delivered by Kawasaki. The post-2008 production model of the CRH2 are designed and made solely by Sifang with a maximum safe operation speed of 350 km/h (220 mph).[1]

Power Destination

  • M - Motor car
  • T - Trailer car
  • C - Driver cabin
  • P - Pantograph

Coach Type

  • ZY - First Class Coach
  • ZE - Second Class Coach
  • ZYE - First Class/Second Class Coach
  • ZEC - Second Class Coach/Buffet Car
  • CA - Buffet Car
  • WR - Soft Sleeper Car
  • WRC - Soft Sleeper Car / Dining Coach


Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Type5 (Second Batch) ZE ZYE ZE ZEC ZE ZY ZE
Power Configuration TC M TP T MP M TC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2
Capacity1 55 100 85 100 55 100 51 64
Capacity2 55 100 46 100 55 100 51 64
Capacity3 44 83 85 100 55 100 51 44
Capacity4 55 100 85 100 55 78 51 64
Capacity5 55 100 16+43 100 71 100 51 64
Capacity6 48 90 90 77 63 90 90 65
  • ^1 Train No.CRH2A-2001 to CRH2A-2020, CRH2A-2022 to CRH2A-2042, and CRH2A-2044
  • ^2 Train No.CRH2A-2021
  • ^3 Train No.CRH2A-2043
  • ^4 Train No.CRH2A-2045 to CRH2A-2060
  • ^5 Train No.CRH2A-2151 to CRH2A-2211. Coach No. 3 has 16 First Class Seats and 43 Second Class seats
  • ^6 Train No.CRH2A-2212 to CRH2A-2416, CRH2A-2427 to CRH2A-2460, CRH2A-2473 to CRH2A-2499, CRH2A-2828, CRH2A-4001 to CRH2A-4071, and CRH2A-4082 to CRH2A-4095


Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Power Configuration TC M TP T M T M T TP M TC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4
Capacity 36 68 51 100 85 100 85 85 100 85 100 85 100 85 65
  • Train No.CRH2B-2111 to CRH2B-2120, and CRH2B-4096 to CRH2B-4099


Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Power Configuration TC M MP M MP M TC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2
Capacity 55 100 85 100 71 100 51 64
  • Train No.CRH2C-2061 to CRH2C-2110, and CRH2C-2141 to CRH2C-2150


Coach No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Power Configuration TC M TP T M T M T TP M TC
Power Units Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4
Capacity1 55 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 55
Capacity2 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 20 60 60 60 60 60 60 40
Capacity3 55 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 40 40 40 40 40 40 55
  • ^1 Train No.CRH2E-2121 to CRH2E-2138, and CRH2E-2140
  • ^2 Train No.CRH2E-2463 to CRH2E-2465
  • ^3 Train No.CRH2E-2461 and CRH2E-2462


As of February, 2011

Operator Quantity Series number Lines serving Note
Beijing Railway Bureau 4 CRH2-028A、CRH2-037A、
Jinghu RailwayJingguang Railway
Jingha Railway
Xi'an Railway Bureau 1 CRH2-038A Longhai Railway
Wuhan Railway Bureau 25 CRH2-011A、CRH2-018A、CRH2-019A、CRH2-022A、
CRH2-039A、CRH2-040A、CRH2-045A ~ CRH2-056A、
Jingguang RailwayWujiu RailwayHanyi Railway
Handan RailwayXiangyu Railway
Hening PFLHewu PFL
Shenyang Railway Bureau 2 CRH2-057A、CRH2-058A Jingha RailwayJinghu Railway
Shanghai Railway Bureau 25 CRH2-002A ~ CRH2-009A、CRH2-014A、CRH2-020A、
CRH2-021A、CRH2-023A ~ CRH2-025A、CRH2-030A、
CRH2-156A ~ CRH2-161A、CRH2-165A ~ CRH2-168A
Jinghu RailwayHukun Railway
Longhai RailwayHuhang PDLHangyong PDLXiaoyong Railway
Yongtaiwen PFLWenfu PFLFuxia PFLXiashen PFL
Huning PDLHening PFLHewu PFLJingguang Railway
Nanchang Railway Bureau 22 CRH2-012A、CRH2-013A、CRH2-015A ~ CRH2-017A、
CRH2-036A、CRH2-041A、CRH2-151A~ CRH2-155A、
CRH2-163A、 CRH2-164A、CRH2-169A ~ CRH2-172A
Hukun RailwayWujiu RailwayWenfu PFLFuxia PFLXiashen PFLChangjiu ICR
China MOR 2 CRH2-001A、CRH2-042A Official Train
1 CRH2-010A Track Inspection Train
Shanghai Railway Bureau 10 CRH2-111B ~ CRH2-120B Jinghu RailwayHukun RailwayHuhang PDLHangyong PDLXiaoyong RailwayYongtaiwen PFLWenfu PFLFuxia PFLXiashen PFLHuning PDLHening PFLHewu PFLHanyi RailwayJingguang Railway
Shanghai Railway Bureau 27 CRH2-062C ~ CRH2-067C、CRH2-069C ~ CRH2-090C Huhang PDLHangyong PDLHuning PDLHening PFLNinghang PDLJinghu PDL
2 CRH2-068C、
Track Inspection Train
Wuhan Railway Bureau 20 CRH2-097C~CRH2-110C、
Wuguang PDL
Xi'an Railway Bureau 9 CRH2-091C ~ CRH2-096C、CRH2-145C ~ CRH2-147C Zhengxi PDL
China MOR 1 CRH2-061C Track Inspection Train
Beijing Railway Bureau 10 CRH2-121E ~ CRH2-125E、
CRH2-137E ~ CRH2-140E
Jinghu Railway (CRH2-139E was written off in Wenzhou train collision )
Nanchang Railway Bureau 4 CRH2-126E、CRH2-128E、
Hukun RailwayWenfu PFLFuxia PFLXiashen PFL Sleeper berths apparently converted to seats;[18] no overnight trains are scheduled on the Fuxia line in 2012.
Shanghai Railway Bureau 5 CRH2-127E、CRH2-129E、
Jinghu RailwayHukun RailwayLonghai RailwayHuhang PDLHangyong PDLXiaoyong RailwayYongtaiwen PFLWenfu PFLFuxia PFLXiashen PFLHuning PDL
China Railway Corporation 1 CRH2-205J N/A Comprehensive Inspection Trains painted in an orange livery converted from the destroyed CRH2-139E.

See also


  1. ^ a b Japan Inc Shoots Itself on the Foot
  2. ^ a b 关于动卧车票及CRH2系列列车的一些最新消息!
  3. ^ 视频:我国首列具自主知识产权长大编组动车组下线
  4. ^ 上海至合肥动车昨首发 全程3.5小时[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ 南车集团高速列车项目获国家开发银行150亿贷款
  6. ^ a b High Speed Rail (HSR) in China: 5 Years Equals 40 Years Archived 2013-01-01 at Archive.is
  7. ^ Proprietary High Speed Locomotives
  8. ^ 我国自主研制的首列时速300公里动车组下线
  9. ^ 国产首列时速300公里"和谐号"动车组成功下线 Archived 2008-04-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ 京津城际列车跑出370公里时速 创国产动车组纪录 Archived 2008-04-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ 最高时速394.2公里比波音747起飞时还快
  12. ^ CRH2C page on CSR Sifang official site[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ 南车青岛四方股份造动车组装备郑西高铁
  14. ^ 南车四方自主研制的世界首批长大编组卧车动车组投入运营 Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "中国第一款纵向布局"双层"卧铺动车组下线 - 行业 - 人民铁道网 - 中国官方铁路门户". www.peoplerail.com. Retrieved 2017-07-02. 
  16. ^ "China's New High-Speed Sleeper Train is Literally a 'Moving Hotel'". nextshark. July 2017. 
  17. ^ 52列動車組將投入運營 37列為南車四方制造的和諧號CRH2型 Archived 2007-10-31 at the Wayback Machine., Science and Technology Daily
  18. ^ Fuzhou-Xiamen bullet trains to change sleeper berths to seats soon, 2010-05-31

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