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The Hawaiian Division was a division of the United States Army, dedicated to the defense of Hawaii. This division was named rather than numbered, as were the Philippine, Panama Canal and Americal Divisions. It was first activated under the peacetime Square Division Table of Organization and Equipment (TO&E) on 25 February 1921 as the Hawaiian Division using assets of the World War I era 11th Infantry Division. It, the Philippine Division, and the Americal Division were the last three U.S. Army divisions to be named rather than numbered. Joseph E. Kuhn, then in command of Schofield Barracks, oversaw the initial organization and employment of the division.
The division retained the square division TO&E until 1941, when it was reorganized under a triangular division TO&E, and part of its former organization became the core of the new 24th Infantry Division and 25th Infantry Division.
The 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions were among the first to see combat in World War II and among the last to stop fighting. The Divisions were on Oahu, with headquarters at Schofield Barracks, when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941, and suffered minor casualties. Charged with the defense of Oahu and the Hawaiian Islands, they built an elaborate system of coastal defenses before deploying for further combat operations.
The Hawaiian Division inactivated in October 1941 to provide cadre and units for the 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions. These were triangular divisions with regiments of the Hawaii National Guard providing the third regiment of each division. The 299th Regiment went to the 24th and the 298th Regiment went to the 25th Infantry Division.