Kingdom of Tondo

Kingdom of Tondo

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Tondo
Kingdom of Tondo
ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ
Kaharian ng Tondo
Personal union with Namayan through its leaders (1175–1571)[1]
before 900 CE[3] (earliest historical reference)–1589[2]
The district of Tondo, highlighted in blue on a Detail of the 1819 Map "Plano de la ciudad de Manila, capital de las Yslas Filipinas", prepared by Francisco Xavier de Herrera lo Grabó for the Manila Land Survey Year of 1819. The consensus among contemporary historiographers is that the location of the district during the Spanish colonial period approximates the location of the archaic polity of Tondo.[4][5]
Capital Tondo (Now a modern district of Manila)[6]
Languages Old Tagalog,[7] Kapampangan[1]
(local languages)

Old Malay,[3] Middle Chinese
(trade languages)
Religion Hinduism,[8] Buddhism,[8][9] Folk religion and Islam
Government Monarchy[10] (Barangay state)[5]
Lakan
 •  c. 900 Jayadewa (first according to LCI)
 •  1515–1558[citation needed] Rajah Salalila
 •  1558–1571 Lakandula
 •  1575–1589 Magat Salamat (last)
Historical era Iron Age
Classical antiquity
High Middle Ages
 •  Diplomacy with the Medang Kingdom[6] before 900 CE[3] (earliest historical reference)
 •  Majapahit–Luzon war 1365
 •  Diplomacy with Ming dynasty[11] 1373
 •  Annexed by Bruneian Empire 1500
 •  Last resistance against Spain[12] 1571
 •  Dissolution of the kingdom 1589[2]
Currency Piloncitos, Gold rings, and Barter[13]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ancient barangay
Prehistory of the Philippines
Kingdom of Maynila
New Spain
Spanish East Indies
Today part of  Philippines
Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply
Part of a series on the
History of Brunei
Pre-Sultanate
Bruneian Empire
1368
to 1888
House of Bolkiah
(15th century – present)
Sultanate of Sulu
1405
to 1578
Kingdom of Maynila
1500s
to 1571
Kingdom of Tondo
1500s
to 1571
Castille War 1578
Civil War 1660–1673
Sarawak
15th century
to 1841
Labuan
15th century
to 1846
Sabah (North Borneo)
15th century
to 1865
British protectorate 1888–1984
Japanese occupation 1942–1945
Borneo campaign 1945
1945–1946
Revolt 1962

The Kingdom of Tondo (Filipino: Kaharian ng Tondo [kɐhɐrɪˈən nɐŋ tonˈdo]; Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit:ᜎᜓᜐᜓ(Lusu), Post-Kudlit: ᜃᜑᜍᜒᜀᜈ᜔ ᜅ᜔ ᜆᜓᜈᜇᜓ; Kapampangan: Kayarian ning Tondo; Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū; Sanskrit: तोन्दुन् (Tondu); Malay: Kerajaan Tundun), also referred to as Tundo, Tundun, Tundok, Tung-lio, or Lusung,[14][15] is one of the major pre-Hispanic Philippine polities[4][16][17] (protohistoric barangays)[18][19][4] north of the Pasig River, on Luzon island.[20](p71)[21] It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines' earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (900 CE).

An independent kingdom whose culture and language were influenced by trade with India,[22] China,[23] and various Southeast Asian powers, Tondo built upon its central position along ancient regional trading routes[24][better source needed][circular reference] throughout the archipelago to include, among others, initiating diplomatic and commercial ties with China during the Ming dynasty. Thus, it became an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia (see Luções).[editorializing] Tondo's regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade and alliance with Brunei's Sultan Bolkiah.[according to whom?] And by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago.[25][better source needed][circular reference]

Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila (a Spanish fort built on the remains of the Kingdom of Maynila). Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent political entity; it now exists only as a district of the modern City of Manila.

Sources and Historiography

Primary sources

Laura Lee Junker, in her 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities, lists the primary sources of information regarding the river delta polities of Maynila and Tondo as “Malay texts, Philippine oral traditions, Chinese tributary records and geographies, early Spanish writings, and archaeological evidence.”[16] Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs (the earliest of which was Robert Fox's[26] work for the National Museum in 1977) and Spanish colonial records (most notably those compiled by the 19th century Franciscan Historian Fray Felix Huerta).[27]

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900 CE)[edit]

Laguna Copperplate Inscription (c. 900)

The first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines' oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI). This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).

The first part of the document says that:

On this occasion, Lady Angkatan, and her brother whose name is Bukah, the children of the Honourable Namwaran, were awarded a document of complete pardon from the King of Tundun, represented by the Lord Minister of Pailah, Jayadewa.

The document was a sort of receipt that acknowledged that the man named Namwaran had been cleared of his debt to the King of Tundun, which in today's measure would be about 926.4 grams of gold.[3][28]

The article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers: Pailah (Lord Minister Jayadewa), Puliran Kasumuran (Lord Minister), Binwangan (unnamed). It has been suggested that Pailah, Puliran Kasumuran, and Binwangan are the towns of Paila, Pulilan, and Binwangan in Bulacan, but it has also been suggested that Pailah refers to the town of Pila, Laguna. More recent linguistic research of the Old Malay grammar of the document suggests the term Puliran Kasumuran refers to the large lake now known as Laguna de Ba'y (Puliran),[citation needed] citing the root of Kasumuran, *sumur as Old Malay for well, spring or freshwater source. Hence ka-sumur-an defines a water-source (in this case the freshwater lake of Puliran itself).[citation needed] While the document does not describe the exact relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers, it at least suggests that he was of higher rank.[29][better source needed]

Ming Dynasty court records (c. 1300s)[edit]

The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals (明实录]),[10] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty (大明朝) in 1373.[10] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[30] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals[contentious label] of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[31] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties.[32][33]

Firsthand Spanish accounts (relaciones) (1521 – late 1500s)[edit]

Events that took place in the Pasig river delta in the 1500s are documented in some of the firsthand epistolary accounts ("relaciones") written by the Spanish.[34][5]

Most of these describe events that took place after 1571–72, when forces under the command of Martín de Goiti, and later Miguel de Legazpi himself, arrived in Manila Bay. These are described in the numerous accounts of the Legazpi expedition, including those by the expedition's designated notary Hernando de Riquel, by Legazpi's successor Guido de Lavezaris, and by Legazpi himself.[5]

However, there are also some references to Maynila, Luzon, and Tondo[5] in the accounts of the Magellan expedition in 1521, which, under the command of Sebastian Elcano, had captured a commander of naval forces for the Sultan of Brunei, whom scholars[5][34] now identify as Prince Ache, who would later become Rajah Matanda.[5][34] These events, and the details Ache's interrogation,[5] were recorded in accounts of Magellan and Elcano's men, including expedition members Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz,[35] Gines de Mafra, and the expedition's scribe Antonio Pigafetta.[36]

Many of these relaciones were later published in compilations in Spain,[5] and some were eventually translated and compiled into the multi-volume collection "The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898" by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson.[5]

Early Tagalog dictionaries and grammar books (late 1500s – early 1600s)[edit]

In addition to the extensive descriptions contained in the firsthand accounts of the Spanish expeditions, much[5] of what is now known about precolonial Tagalog culture, religion, and language are derived from early Tagalog dictionaries and grammar books, such as Fray San Buenaventura's 1613 "Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala" and Fray Francisco Blancas de San José's 1610 "Arte de la lengua tagala." Scott notes that while the relaciones spoke much about the Tagalogs' religion because it was the concern of the Spanish missionaries, and of their political and martial organization because it was the concern of the Spanish bureaucrats,[5] these dictionaries and grammar books are rich sources of information regarding the Tagalogs' material and ephemeral culture.[5]

Genealogical sources

Historical documents containing genealogical information regarding the rulers of Tondo during and immediately after the arrival of the Spanish fleet in the early 1570s mostly consist of notarized Spanish documents[34] executed by the direct descendants of rulers such as (Bunao) Lakan Dula of Tondo; Rajah Matanda (Ache) and Rajah Sulayman of Maynila; and Rajah Calamayin of Namayan.[34] In addition to firsthand accounts of the executors' immediate descendants and relatives, some (although not all) of these genealogical documents include information from family oral traditions, connecting the document's subjects to local legendary figures.[34] Several of these notarized Spanish documents are kept by the National Archives and are labeled the "Lakandula documents."[34]

Scott, in his seminal 1984 work "Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History", identifies a number of "quasi-historical" genealogical sources, which are not physically historical, but which contain genealogical information which claims to date back to early historic times.[37] These include the Sulu and Maguindanao Tarsilas, and the Batu Tarsila of Brunei.[37]

Critical historiography

Junker notes that most of the primary written sources have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, and with empirical archeological evidence.[16] She adds that not "surprisingly little work" on the critical historiography of early Philippine societies has been done, and cited the works of F. Landa Jocano, Felix M. Keesing, and William Henry Scott as notable exceptions.[16]

Geographical location and territorial influence

The world in 900 AD, shows Tondo or Lusung and its neighbors.

Scholars generally agree[16][4] that Tondo was located north of the Pasig river,[1] on the northern part of Lusong or Lusung, which is an Old Tagalog name for the Pasig river delta.[5](p190–191) This name is thought to have been derived from the Tagalog word for a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[38][15] This name eventually came to be used as the name for the entire island of modern Luzon.[39]

The exact extent of territory controlled by Tondo is not clearly described in early records, since, as the Malacañang Presidential Museum put it in their 2015 Araw ng Maynila briefers,[4] "early polities in the Philippines put primacy on alliance networking rather than territorial conquest in expanding their political power."[4] However, its territorial boundaries excluded[5](p191)[27] territory occupied by Maynila[5][40] and Namayan.[26][27]

Reclamation by Chinese refugees in Baybay

One notable area controlled by Tondo under the reign of Bunao Lakandula in the 1500s[5] was called "Baybay", now known as the district of San Nicolas, Manila.[41] William Henry Scott, citing Augustinian missionary records,[42] notes that Bunao Lakandula had allowed a group of Chinese refugees, fleeing persecution from Japan, to settle there. These refugees, which included two Christians, then "diked, drained, and reclaimed land along the waterfront", extending the shore of Tondo further out to Manila Bay.[5]

Territory

Inside modern NCR

Outside modern NCR

Etymology

Plate depicting the "tundok" plant (Aegiceras corniculatum), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"
Detail of an illustration from Jean Mallat's 1846 book "The Philippines: history, geography, customs, agriculture, industry, and commerce of the Spanish colonies in Oceania", showing "a Tagalog couple pounding rice." The mortar depicted is known as a "lusong", a large, cylindrical, deep-mouthed wooden mortal used to de-husk rice.[46](p44) Linguist Jean Paul Potet explains that the Old Tagalog name of the Pasig River delta,[47] in which Tondo was located, was derived from this mortar.

Numerous theories on the origin of the name "Tondo" have been put forward. Filipino National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground ("tundok").[48] French linguist Jean-Paul Potet, however, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called "tundok" ("tinduk-tindukan" today), is the most likely origin of the name.[47]

Bangkang Pinawa,[relevant? ] ancient Philippine mortar and pestle.

The name Luzon, which Potet explains was the name given to the Pasig River delta area,[47] is thought to derive from the Tagalog word lusong, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.[14][15] A 2008 PIDS research paper by Eulito Bautista and Evelyn Javier provides an image of a Lusong, and explains that, "Traditional milling was accomplished in the 1900s by pounding the palay with a wooden pestle in a stone or wooden mortar called lusong. The first pounding takes off the hull and further pounding removes the bran but also breaks most grains. Further winnowing with a bamboo tray (bilao) separates the hull from the rice grains. This traditional hand-pounding chore, although very laborious and resulted in a lot of broken rice, required two to three skilled men and women to work harmoniously and was actually a form of socializing among young folks in the villages."[46]

Austronesian origins of Tondo

As with virtually all the lowland peoples of Maritime Southeast Asia, the Tagalog people who established the settlement of Tondo were Austronesians.[5](p12)[49][50] They had a rich, complex culture, with its own expressions of language and writing, religion, art, and music.[51][50] This Austronesian culture was already in place before the cultural influences of China, the Indonesian thassalocracies of Srivijaya and Majapahit, and Brunei, and eventually, the western colonial powers.[50][51] The core elements of this austronesian culture also persisted despite the introduction of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and, later, Christianity.[50][52] Elements of these belief systems were syncretistically adapted by the Tagalogs to enrich their already-existing worldviews,[50] elements of which still persist today in the syncretistic forms known as Folk Catholicism and Folk Islam.[52][53][51]

There is some debate[49] about whether the Austronesian culture first came to the island of Luzon from continental Asia as proposed by Peter Bellwood and Robert Blust,[49] or from Maritime Southeast Asia as proposed by Wilhelm Solheim and William Meacham.[49] But whichever route these Austronesians first used to get to the Philippine archipelago, the general consensus among scholars[49] is that they settled on what is now the island of Luzon during the earliest stages of their migratory dispersal no later than about 3,500 years ago,[49] and later waves of migration spread from the Philippine archipelago to reach as far east as Easter Island,[54][55] and as far west as Madagascar.[56][57]

The cultural heritage uncovered by this recent scholarship explains why Filipino cultures, as pointed out by writers such as Nick Joaquin (in his 1988 book, "Culture and History"),[58] seem even more similar to Micronesian and Polynesian cultures than they are to continental Asian and Maritime Southeast Asian cultures.[58]

These Austronesian cultures are defined by their languages, and by a number of key technologies including the cultural prominence of boats, the construction of thatched houses on piles, the cultivation of tubers and rice, and a characteristic social organization typically led by a “big man” or “man of power”.[50][51]

Indian cultural influences

The archipelagoes of Southeast Asia were under the influence of Hindu Tamil, Gujarati and Indonesian traders through the ports of Malay-Indonesian islands. Indian religions, possibly an amalgamated version of Hindu-Buddhist arrived in Philippines archipelago in the 1st millennium, through the Indonesian kingdom of Srivijaya followed by Majapahit. Archeological evidence suggesting exchange of ancient spiritual ideas from India to the Philippines includes the 1.79 kilogram, 21 carat gold Hindu goddess Agusan (sometimes referred to as Golden Tara), found in Mindanao in 1917 after a storm and flood exposed its location.[59] The statue now sits in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and is dated from the period 13th to early 14th centuries.

The earliest written record of the Tagalog is a 9th-century document known as the Laguna Copperplate Inscription which is about a remission of debt on behalf of the ruler of Tondo.[60] Inscribed on it is year 822 of the Saka Era, the month of Waisaka, and the fourth day of the waning moon, which corresponds to Monday, April 21, 900 CE in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.[61] The writing system used is the Old Kawi, while the language is a variety of Old Malay, and contains numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin may be Old Javanese. Some contend it is between Old Tagalog and Old Javanese.[62] The document states that it releases its bearers, the children of Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas (865 grams).[63][61] During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah in 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei decided to break Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and establishing the state of Selurung as a Bruneian satellite-state.[64][65]

Culture and Society

A portrayal of the Ginu class. From the Boxer Codex, c. 1595

It is believed[according to whom?] that the people of Tondo were related to Malay of Malay peninsula and Sumatra.[20](p71) Since at least the 3rd century,[attribution needed] the people of Tondo had developed a culture which is predominantly Hindu and Buddhist society.[attribution needed] They are ruled by a Lakan, which belongs to a caste[contentious label] of Maharlika, were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon, translated in Spanish as Hidalgos, and meaning freeman, libres or freedman.[19] They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayans. In modern Filipino, however, the term itself has erroneously come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class.[66]

Kingdom of Tondo
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 東都
Japanese name
Kyūjitai 呂宋.

Social structure

The pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga and Laguna had a more complex social structure than the cultures of the Visayas, enjoying a more extensive commerce through their Bornean political contacts, and engaging in farming wet rice for a living. The Tagalogs were thus described by the Spanish Augustinian friar Martin de Rada as more traders than warriors.[67]

In his seminal 1994 work "Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society" (further simplified in the briefer by the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office in 2015), historian William Henry Scott delineates the three classes of Tagalog society during the 1500s:[4]

  • the Maginoo[4] (ruling class), which included the Lakan/Rajah and the Datus under him;
  • A class described as "Freemen"[4] consisting of Timawa and Maharlika; and
  • Alipin (slaves),[4] which could further be subcategorized as Aliping Namamahay or Aliping Sa Gigilid.

The term datu or lakan, or apo refers to the chief, but the noble class to which the datu belonged to was known as the maginoo class. Any male member of the maginoo class can become a datu by personal achievement.[68]

The term timawa referring to freemen came into use in the social structure of the Tagalogs within just twenty years after the coming of the Spaniards. The term, however, was being incorrectly applied to former alipin (commoner and slave class) who have escaped bondage by payment, favor, or flight. Moreover, the Tagalog timawa did not have the military prominence of the Visayan timawa. The equivalent warrior class in the Tagalog society was present only in Laguna, and they were known as the maharlika class.

At the bottom of the social hierarchy are the members of the alipin class. There are two main subclasses of the alipin class. The aliping namamahay who owned their own houses and served their masters by paying tribute or working on their fields were the commoners and serfs, while the aliping sa gigilid who lived in their masters' houses were the servants and slaves.

The more complex social structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating.[69][vague]

Political leadership structure

The indigenous term used by the residents of Tondo to describe their form of government was "barangay",[4][16][18][5] a term referring to the ships[5] they supposedly used when they first settled on the land.

This leads to some confusion for modern readers, because the term "barangay" was later adapted (through the 1991 Local Government Code) as a replacement for the Spanish term barrio to describe the smallest administrative division in the modern Republic of the Philippines[18] - a government structure very different from the original meaning of the word.[5]

Popular literature has thus described these political entities as either chiefdoms[4] or kingdoms.[48] Although modern scholars such as Renfew[17] and Junker[16] note that these are not appropriate technical descriptions.[16][17][4]

Contemporary historiographers specializing in early Philippine history prefer to use the generic term "polity" in international journals,[16][17][4] avoiding the terms "chiefdom" and "kingdom" altogether.

Scholars such as William Henry Scott and F. Landa Jocano have continued to use the term "barangay", especially in longer-form texts such as books[5] and anthologies,[70] because these longer forms allow space for explanations of the differences between the modern and archaic uses of the word "barangay".

Religion

Expansion of Hinduism in the Philippines.

The main religion was widely Hinduism, followed by Buddhism[71] in popularity along with Folk religion, Initially the kingdom revered Buddhist-Hindu influence as the predominant religion.[8][72][73]

Buddhism,[74][75][76] is widely practice throughout Tondo,[citation needed] the Vajrayana,[77][unreliable source?] Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism,[78][unreliable source?] made inroads into Philippines when the Srivijaya empire in present-day Indonesia and Malaysia gained prominence. This was the period between 7th century to 13th century. Later, on the arrival of the Chinese and Indian merchants between the 10th century brought in the Buddhist knowledge as well as Buddhist iconography. Buddhist statues and artefacts from this era is a proof to the influence that Buddhism had amongst the people in the Philippines.[77][unreliable source?]

Folk religion was practiced a collection of beliefs and cultural mores anchored more or less in the idea that the world is inhabited by spirits and supernatural entities, both good and bad, and that respect must be accorded to them through worship. These nature spirits are known as "diwatas", related[79] to Hindu Devatas.

An artifact found in 1989, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription by scholars. It is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines, dated to be from the 10th century, and was deciphered in 1992 by Dutch anthropologist Antoon Postma. The inscription suggests economic and cultural links between the Tagalog people of Philippines with the Javanese Medang Kingdom, the Srivijaya empire, and the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms of India. Hinduism in the country declined when Islam was introduced by traders from Arabia which was then followed by Christianity from Spain. This is an active area of research as little is known about the scale and depth of Philippine history from the 1st millennium and before.[80] The document states that it releases its bearers, the children of Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suwarnas (865 grams).[28][61][dubious ]

Islamization[edit]

Islamization was a slow process characterised by with the steady conversion of the citizenry of Tondo and Manila which created Muslim domains. The Bruneians installed the Muslim rajahs, Rajah Salalila and Rajah Matanda in the south (now the Intramuros district) and the Buddhist-Hindu settlement was ruled under Lakan Dula in northern Tundun (now Tondo).[81] Islamization of Luzon began in the 16th century when traders from Brunei settled in the Manila area and married locals while maintaining kinship and trade links with Brunei and thus other Muslim centres in Southeast Asia. The Muslims were called "Moros" by the Spanish who assumed they occupied the whole coast. There is no evidence that Islam had become a major political or religious force in the region, with Father Diego de Herrera recording that the Moros lived only in some villages and were Muslim in name only.[82]

Economic activities

The Piloncitos, a type of Gold nuggets with Baybayin Ma characters. Used as one of the early currency along with Gold rings.
The route of the Silk Road.

The people of Tondo were good[peacock term] agriculturists,[according to whom?] they lived through farming, rice planting and aquaculture (especially in lowland areas).[according to whom?] A report[citation needed] during the time of Miguel López de Legazpi noted of the great abundance of rice, fowls, wine as well as great numbers of carabaos, deer, wild boar and goat husbandry in Luzon. In addition, there were also great quantities of cotton and colored clothes, wax, wine, honey and date palms produced by the native peoples, rice, cotton, swine, fowls, wax and honey abound.

The Chinese migrations to Malaya and the Philippines shore began in the 7th century and reached their peak after 1644 owing to the Manchu conquest of China. These Chinese immigrants settled in Manila, Pasig included, and in the other ports, which were annually visited by their trade junks, they have cargoes of silk, tea, ceramics, and their precious jade stones.[83]

The use of rice paddies in Pila[relevant? ] can be traced to prehistoric times, as evidenced in the names of towns such as Pila, Laguna, whose name can be traced to the straight mounds of dirt that form the boundaries of the rice paddy, or "Pilapil".[84]

Duck culture was also practiced by the natives, particularly those around Pateros and where Taguig City stands today.[relevant? ] This resembled the Chinese methods of artificial incubation of eggs and the knowledge of every phase of a duck's life. This tradition is carried on until modern times of making balut.[85]

Gold as a currency

Trade among the early Filipinos and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through Barter. The inconvenience of barter later led to the use of some objects as medium of exchange. Gold, which was plentiful in many parts of the islands, invariably found its way into these objects that included the Piloncitos, small bead-like gold nuggets/bits considered by the local numismatists as the earliest coin of ancient Filipinos, and gold barter rings.[86]

The Piloncitos a type of gold ingots are small, some are of the size of a corn kernel—and weigh from 0.09 to 2.65 grams of fine gold. Large Piloncitos weighing 2.65 grams approximate the weight of one mass. Piloncitos have been excavated from Mandaluyong, Bataan, the banks of the Pasig River, and Batangas.[13] That gold was mined and worked here is evidenced by many Spanish accounts, like one in 1586 that said:

“The people of this island (Luzon) are very skillful in their handling of gold. They weigh it with the greatest skill and delicacy that have ever been seen. The first thing they teach their children is the knowledge of gold and the weights with which they weigh it, for there is no other money among them.”[13]

Other than Piloncitos, the people of Tundun also used the Barter rings, which is gold ring-like ingots. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of nearly pure gold.[87] Also, they are very similar to the first coins invented in the Kingdom of Lydia in present-day Turkey. Barter rings were circulated in the Philippines up to 16th century.[88]

Trade to Silk Road

Many of the barangay municipalities were, to a varying extent, under the de jure jurisprudence of one of several neighboring empires, among them the Malay Srivijaya, Javanese Majapahit, Po-ni, Malacca, Indian Chola, Champa, Burma and Khmer empires.[89]

Trading links with Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Malay Peninsula, Indochina, China, Japan, India and Arabia. A thalassocracy had thus emerged based on international trade.[89]

Timeline of historical events

Lusung and the Luzones (1511 – early 1570s)

Portuguese accounts[edit]

Pires noted that they (The Lucoes or people from Luzon) were "mostly heathen" and were not much esteemed in Malacca at the time he was there, although he also noted that they were strong, industrious, given to useful pursuits. Pires' exploration led him to discover that in their own country, the Luções had "foodstuffs, wax, honey, inferior grade gold," had no king, and were governed instead by a group of elders. They traded with tribes from Borneo and Indonesia and Filipino historians note that the language of the Luções was one of the 80 different languages spoken in Malacca.[90] When Magellan's ship arrived in the Philippines and East Timor, Pigafetta noted that there were Luções there collecting sandalwood.[89]

The Luções' activities weren't limited to trade however. They also had a reputation for being fierce warriors.

Pinto noted that there were a number of them in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511.[91] Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.[89]

Resistance against Muslims[edit]

However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.[91]

Mission in Malacca[edit]

When the Portuguese arrived in Southeast Asia in 1500, they witnessed the Lusung's active involvement in the political and economic affairs of those who sought to take control of the economically strategic highway of the Strait of Malacca. For instance, the former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525.[92]

Burmese–Siamese wars involvement[edit]

On Mainland Southeast Asia, Lusung/Luções warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayutthaya.[93]

A Warrior equipped with Sibat and Kalasag A Warrior equipped with Arquebuse.

Lusung Assistance in the Portuguese Discovery of Japan[edit]

The Luções were also instrumental in guiding Portuguese ships to discover Japan. The Western world first heard of Japan through the Portuguese. But it was through the Luções (as the Portuguese called the people of Lusung) that the Portuguese had their first encounter with the Japanese. The Portuguese king commissioned his subjects to get good pilots that could guide them beyond the seas of China and Malacca. In 1540, the Portuguese king's factor in Brunei, Brás Baião, recommended to his king the employment of Lusung pilots because of their reputation as "discoverers".[94] Thus it was through Lusung navigators that Portuguese ships found their way to Japan in 1543. In 1547, Jesuit missionary and Catholic saint Francis Xavier encountered his first Japanese convert from Satsuma disembarking from a Lusung ship in Malacca.

The Bruneian Empire and the establishment of Selurong (1500)

By the end of 15th century, the Bruneian Empire controlled the western shores of the Philippines.

According to other Bruneian oral traditions, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah played a role in the creation of the Tondo's neighbor, Selurong, which would later become the City of Manila. French linguist Jean-Paul Potet[47](p122) notes that "According to some, Luzon and/Manila would have been called Seludong or Selurong by the Malays of Brunei before the Spanish conquest (Cebu 1565, Manila 1571)."[47](p122) However, Potet also points out that "there is no text to support this claim.  Conversely, Borneo has a mountain site called Seludong."[47](p122)

Scott acknowledges those traditions, noting that "according to Bruneian folk history",[5](p191) [ ] "Manila was probably founded as a Bornean trading colony about 1500, with a royal prince marrying into the local ruling family."[5](p191)

According to other Bruneian oral traditions, the Sultanate of Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attacked the kingdom of Tondo, and established Selurong[95] on the opposite bank of Pasig River. The traditional Rajahs of Tondo, like Lakandula, retained their titles and property but the real political power came to reside in the House of Soliman, the Rajahs of Maynila.[96]

Incorporation into the Bruneian Empire (1500)

Tondo became so prosperous that around the year 1500, the Bruneian Empire, under Sultan Bolkiah, merged it by a royal marriage of Gat Lontok, who later became Rajah of Namayan, and Dayang Kalangitan[citation needed] to establish a city with the Malay name of Selurong (later to become the city of Manila)[5][97] on the opposite bank of Pasig River.

The traditional rulers of Tondo, like Lakandula, retained their titles and property upon embracing Islam but the real political power transferred to the master trader House of Sulayman, the Rajahs of Maynila.[98]

Spanish contact and decline (1570 – after 1571)

Spanish colonizers from Mexico first came to the Manila Bay area and its settlements in June 1570, while Miguel López de Legazpi was searching for a suitable place to establish a capital for the new territory. Having heard from the natives of a prosperous Moro settlement on the island of Luzon, López de Legazpi had sent Martín de Goiti to investigate. When Maynila's ruler, Rajah Matanda, refused to submit to Spanish sovereignty, de Goiti attacked. He eventually defeated Rajah Matanda, claimed Maynila in the name of the King of Spain, then returned to report his success to López de Legazpi, who was then based on the island of Panay.

López de Legazpi himself returned to take the settlement on 19 June 1571. When the Spanish forces approached, the natives burned Maynila down and fled to Tondo and other neighboring towns.

López de Legazpi began constructing a fort on the ashes of Maynila and made overtures of friendship to Lakandula of Tondo, who accepted. The defeated Matanda refused to submit to the Spaniards, but failed to get the support of Lakandula or of the Kapampangan and Pangasinan settlements to the north. When Rajah Sulayman and a force of Muslim warriors attacked the Spaniards in the Battle of Bankusay Channel, he was finally defeated and killed.

This defeat marked the end of rebellion against the Spanish among the Pasig river settlements, and Lakandula's Tondo surrendered its sovereignty, submitting to the authority of the new Spanish capital, Manila.[99]

Battle of Bankusay Channel (1571)[edit]

June 3, 1571 marked the last resistance by locals to the occupation and colonization by the Spanish Empire of Manila in the Battle of Bankusay Channel. Tarik Sulayman, the chief of Macabebes, refused to ally with the Spanish and decided to mount an attack at the Bankusay Channel on Spanish forces, led by Miguel López de Legazpi. Sulayman's forces were defeated, and he was killed. The Spanish victory in Bankusay and Legaspi's alliance with Lakandula of the Kingdom of Tondo, enabled the Spaniards to establish themselves throughout the city and its neighboring towns.[100]

Tondo Conspiracy (1587–1588)[edit]

The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, also referred to as the Revolt of the Lakans from 1587–1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the Tagalog and Kapampangan noblemen, or Datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga, in the Philippines. They were the indigenous rulers of their area or an area yet upon submission to the might of the Spanish was relegated as mere collector of tributes or at best Encomenderos that need to report to a Spanish Governor. It was led by Agustín de Legazpi, the son of a Maginoo of Tondo (one of the chieftains of Tondo), born of a Spanish mother given a Hispanized name to appease the colonizers, grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, and his first cousin, Martin Pangan. The datus swore to rise up in arms. The uprising failed when they were betrayed to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.[2] The mastermind of the plot was Don Agustín de Legazpi; the mestizo grandson of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula, a relative of Rajah Matanda. Being a Moro, he was the son-in-law of Sultan Bolkieh of Brunei, whose first cousin was Martín Panga, the gobernadorcillo of Tondo.

Besides the two, the other leaders were Magat Salamat, son of Lakan Dula and the crown prince of Tondo; Juan Banal, another prince of Tondo and Salamat’s brother-in-law; Geronimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambacar, brothers of Agustín de Legazpi; Pedro Balingit, the Lord of Pandakan; Felipe Salonga, the Lord of Polo; Dionisio Capolo (Kapulong), the Lord of Kandaba and brother of Felipe Salonga; Juan Basi, the Lord of Tagig; Esteban Taes (also Tasi), the Lord of Bulakan; Felipe Salalila, the Lord of Misil; Agustín Manuguit, son of Felipe Salalila; Luis Amanicaloa, another prince of Tondo; Felipe Amarlangagui, the commander-and-chief of Katanghalan; Omaghicon, the Minister of Nabotas, and Pitongatan (Pitong Gatang), another prince of Tondo and two governors from Malolos and Guiguinto.[2]

Diplomatic relations with contemporaneous polities

Relations with the Medang Kingdom (900)

Pre-hispanic History of the Philippines
Barangay government
Ten datus of Borneo
States in Luzon
Caboloan (Pangasinan)
Ma-i
Kingdom of Maynila
Namayan
Kingdom of Tondo
States in the Visayas
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Kedatuan of Dapitan
Rajahnate of Cebu
States in Mindanao
Rajahnate of Butuan
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
Sultanate of Lanao
Key figures
Sulaiman II · Lakan Dula · Sulaiman III · Katuna
Tarik Sulayman · Tupas · Kabungsuwan · Kudarat
Humabon · Lapu-Lapu · Alimuddin I · Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram
History of the Philippines
Portal: Philippines

The Dutch anthropologist and Hanunó'o script expert Antoon Postma has concluded that the Laguna Copperplate Inscription also mentions the places of Tondo (Tundun); Paila (Pailah), now an enclave of Barangay San Lorenzo, Norzagaray; Binuangan (Binwangan), now part of Obando; and Pulilan (Puliran); and Mdaŋ (the Javanese Kingdom of Medang), in present-day Indonesia.[45] Apparently, the Philippine Kingdom of Tondo and the Medang Kingdom of Indonesia were known allies and trading partners.

Relations with Siamese kingdoms (Thailand)

The Lucoes and Siam began its relation way-back in the 13th century in the context of Southeast Asian maritime trade. Archaeological records point not only to commercial and cultural ties but also a recognition of their political stature. Siam with its kingdoms and the Philippines with its rajahs. There were also ceramic wares from Sukhothai and Sawankhalok found in Luzon and Visayas region as evidence of early relations. Southeast Asian wares found in the Philippines from the 13th century to 16th century period were mostly from Siam.[101][102]

Diplomacy with the Ming dynasty (1373)

The next historical reference to Tondo can be found in the Chinese Ming Shilu Annals,[10] which record the arrival of an envoy from Luzon to the Ming Dynasty in 1373.[10] Her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo (Chinese: ; pinyin: dōngdū) were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings ().[30] This reference places Tondo into the larger context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals of the Philippine archipelago.

Theories such as Wilhelm Solheim's Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network (NMTCN) suggest that cultural links between what are now China and the nations of Southeast Asia, including what is now the Philippines, date back to the peopling of these lands.[31] But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song dynasties.[32]

The rise of the Ming dynasty saw the arrival of the first Chinese settlers in the archipelago. They were well received and lived together in harmony with the existing local population — eventually intermarrying with them so that today, numerous Filipinos have Chinese blood in their veins.[32]

This connection was important enough that when the Ming Dynasty emperors enforced the Hai jin laws which closed China to maritime trade from 1371 to about 1567, trade with the Kingdom of Tondo was officially allowed to continue, masqueraded as a tribute system, through the seaport at Fuzhou.[103] Aside from this, a more extensive clandestine trade from Guangzhou and Quanzhou also brought in Chinese goods to Luzon.[104]

Luzon and Tondo thus became a center from which Chinese goods were traded all across Southeast Asia. Chinese trade was so strict that Luzon traders carrying these goods were considered "Chinese" by the people they encountered.[104]

This powerful presence in the trade of Chinese goods in 16th-century East Asia was also felt strongly by Japan. The Ming Empire treated Luzon traders more favorably than Japan by allowing them to trade with China once every two years.

Diplomacy with Japan

A Japanese Red seal ship. Tokyo Naval Science Museum.
Statue of Luzon Sukezaemon at Sakai Citizens' Hall.

Japan was only allowed to trade once every 10 years. Japanese merchants often used piracy in order to obtain much sought after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain. Famous 16th-century Japanese merchants and tea connoisseurs like Shimai Soushitsu (島井宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神屋宗湛) established branch offices on the island of Luzon. One famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon (呂宋助左衛門), went as far as to change his surname from Naya (納屋) to Luzon (呂宋).[105]

Relations between Japan and the kingdoms in the Philippines, date back to at least the Muromachi period of Japanese history, as Japanese merchants and traders had settled in Luzon at this time. Especially in the area of Dilao, a suburb of Manila, was a Nihonmachi of 3,000 Japanese around the year 1600. The term probably originated from the Tagalog term 'dilaw'[citation needed], meaning 'yellow', which describes a colour. The Japanese had established quite early an enclave at Dilao where they numbered between 300 and 400 in 1593. In 1603, during the Sangley rebellion, they numbered 1,500, and 3,000 in 1606. In the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of Japanese people traders also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population.[106] pp. 52–3

Historical theories associated with Ancient Tondo

Lakandula as a title

While most historians think of Lakan Dula as a specific person, with Lakan meaning Lord, King or Paramount Ruler and Dula being a proper name, one theory suggests that Lakandula is a hereditary title for the Monarchs of the Kingdom of Tondo.[107]

The heirs of Lakan Banao Dula

In 1587, Magat Salamat, one of the children of Lakan Dula, and with his Spanish name Augustin de Legazpi, Lakan Dula's nephew, and the lords of the neighboring areas of Tondo, Pandakan, Marikina, Kandaba, Nabotas and Bulakan were martryed for secretly conspiring to overthrow the Spanish colonizers. Stories were told that Magat Salamat's descendants settled in Hagonoy, Bulacan and many of his descendants spread from this area.[108]

David Dula y Goiti, a grandson of Lakan Dula with a Spanish mother escaped the persecution of the descendants of Lakan Dula by settling in Isla de Batag, Northern Samar and settled in the place now called Candawid (Kan David). Due to hatred for the Spaniards, he dropped the Goiti in his surname and adopted a new name David Dulay. He was eventually caught by the Guardia Civil based in Palapag and was executed together with seven followers. They were charged with planning to attack the Spanish detachment.[108]

Heirs

According to historians from National Archives of the Philippines, the main line of heirs of the Tondo monarchs are the direct family lines of Salonga and Magsaysay. Among these are international singer and theatre actress Lea Salonga and columnist Ramon Magsaysay III.

Notable monarchs of Tondo

Historical rulers of Tondo

A number of rulers of Tondo are specifically identified in historical documents, which include:

  • the epistolary firsthand accounts of the members of the Magellan and Legaspi expeditions, referred to in Spanish as "relaciones";[5]
  • various notarized genealogical records kept by the early Spanish colonial government,[5] mostly in the form of last wills and testaments of descendants of said rulers;[34] and,
  • in the case of Jayadewa, specific mention in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.[3]
Title Name Specifics Dates Primary source(s) Academic reception of primary source(s)
Hwan Nāyaka Jayadeva
Jayadewa
Senapati[28] (Admiral), known only in the LCI as the king who gave the pardon to Lord Namwaran and his wife Dayang Angkatan and their daughter named Buka for their excessive debts in c. 900 CE. c. 900 CE[3] Identified in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription as the ruler of Tondo in c. 900 CE Idenification as ruler of Tondo in c. 900 CE proposed by Antoon Postma[3] and generally accepted by Philippine historiographers[16]
Sultan Bolkiah[109][5] Sultan Bolkiah, according to Brunei folk history, is the "Nakhoda Ragam" or the "Singing Captain", the reputed conqueror of the Philippines.[5] The tradition even names the cannon with which he was said to have taken Manila - "Si Gantar Alam", translated as the "Earth-shaking Thunderer".[5] He established an outpost in the center of the area of Manila after the rulers of Tondo lost in the Battle of Manila (1500). Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei is the grandfather of Ache, the old rajah, also known as Ladyang Matanda or Rajah Matanda.[5] c. 1500–1515?[verification needed] - -
Rajah Salalila[citation needed] Rajah Salalila (sometimes referred to as Rajah Sulayman I[citation needed]), the Rajah of Maynila and Pampanga[citation needed]
(A puppet[dubious ] Rajah installed by Sultan Bolkiah[citation needed])
1515[not in citation given]–1558[not in citation given] Identified as "Salalila"[34] in Spanish genealogical documents Veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[34][16]

Key scholarly works referencing Salalila include Henson (1955),[110] Majul (1973),[111] Luciano PR Santiago (1990),[98] W.H. Scott (1994),[5] and Dery (2001).[34]

Rajah Ache (Rajah Matanda) Rajah Matanda or Rajah Sulayman II or Rajah Ache 1558[not in citation given]– (d.) August 1572[5] Multiple firsthand accounts from the Magellan (1521) and Legaspi Expeditions (late 1560s to early 1570s);[5] Spanish genealogical documents[34] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[5][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[16]
Lakan or Lakandula Bunao (Lakan Dula) Bunao Lakandula, Lakan of Tondo and Sabag, he is the last ruler which possess the title of "Lakan". 1558[not in citation given]–1571[not in citation given] Multiple firsthand accounts from the Legaspi Expedition (early 1570s); Spanish genealogical documents[34] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[5][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[34][16]
Rajah Sulayman Rajah Sulayman, Rajah of Tondo and Maynila 1571[not in citation given]–1575 Multiple accounts from the Legaspi Expedition (early 1570s); Spanish genealogical documents[34] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[5][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[34][16]
Magat Magat Salamat The last ruler of Tondo dynasty after the monarchy was dissolved by the Spanish authorities due to the fact that he led the Tondo conspiracy. 1575–1589 Firsthand accounts of the Legaspi Expedition (mid-1570s); Spanish genealogical documents[34] Firsthand accounts generally accepted by Philippine historiographers, with corrections for hispanocentric bias subject to scholarly peer review;[5][16] veracity of genealogical documents subject to scholarly peer review.[34][16]

Legendary rulers

A number of rulers of Tondo are known only through oral histories, which in turn have been recorded by various documentary sources, ranging from historical documents describing oral histories, to contemporary descriptions of modern (post-colonial/national-era) oral accounts. These include:

  • orally transmitted genealogical traditions, such as the Batu Tarsila, which have since been recorded and cited by scholarly accounts;
  • legends and folk traditions documented by anthropologists, local government units, the National Historical Institute of the Philippines, and other official sources; and
  • recently published genealogical accounts based on contemporary research.

Scholarly acceptance of the details recounted in these accounts vary from case to case, and are subject to scholarly peer review.

Title Name Specifics From Primary sources Academic notes on primary sources
Ama-ron
or Amaron
Amaron is like most of the male Filipino mythological heroes, he is described as an attractive well-built man who exemplifies great strength. Ama-ron is unique among other Filipino legends[citation needed] due to the lack of having a story on how he was born which was common with Filipino epic heroes. Uncertain, possibly during Iron Age.[112][verification needed] [citation needed] [citation needed]
Gat Pangil
[relevant? ]
Gat Pangil was a chieftain in the area now known as Laguna province, He is mentioned in the origin legends of Bay, Laguna, Pangil, Laguna, Pakil, Laguna and Mauban, Quezon, all of which are thought to have once been under his domain.[44] Uncertain, possibly during Iron Age.[not in citation given] Oral histories of Laguna, specifically the towns of Bay, Pakil, and Pangil.[113] Oral history mentioning Pangil is extensively referenced by local government sources and by popular accounts such as those of Feleo and Sheniak (2001).[113] However, these references specifically mention only the localities in the Laguna Lake Region,[5][113] and have no references to Manila.[5][113]

The independence of Bay and of the Laguna Lake Region from any other kingdoms, polities, or chiefdoms is widely asserted by scholars including Odal-Devora,[1] Scott,[5] L.PR Santiago,[98] Dery,[34] and Jocano.[18]

Rajah Alon Rajah Alon was a king of Tondo in what is now Manila. The son of Lakan Timamanukum, he expanded his dominion southwards by conquering neighbouring territories such as Kumintang (present-day Batangas) and the Bicolandia. He was succeeded by his grandson, Rajah Gambang.[114] c. 1200s

Present day oral histories documented in a disputed internet source[better source needed]

"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora)[1]
Sasaban In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, a "lady of Namayan" who went to the Madjapahit court to marry Emperor Soledan, eventually giving birth to Balagtas, who then returned to Namayan/Pasig in 1300.[1](p51) prior to 1300[1] Oral Tradition cited by Leonardo Vivicencio and Nick Joaquin[1] Cited in non-academic work by Nick Joaquin, then later mentioned in Odal-Devora, 2000.[1]
"Princess" or "Lady"
(term used in oral tradition, as documented by Odal-Devora)[1]
Panginoan In Batangueño Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[1] the daughter of Kalangitan and Lontok who were rulers of Pasig, who eventually maried Balagtas, King of Balayan and Taal.(p51)

In Kapampangan[1] Folk Tradition as cited by Odal-Devora,[1] who eventually married Bagtas, the "grandson of Kalangitan."(pp47,51)

In oral tradition recounted by Nick Joaquin and Leonardo Vivencio, "Princess Panginoan of Pasig" who was married by Balagtas, the son of Emperor Soledan of Madjapahit in 1300 in an effort consolidate rule of Namayan.[1](pp47,51)
c. 1300[1] Batangueño folk tradition, Kapampangan folk tradition, Oral tradition cited by Vivencio and Joaquin[1] Mentioned in Odal-Devora, 2000;[1] also mentioned in non-academic work by Nick Joaquin[1]
Rajah Gambang[115][verification needed] Rajah Gambang, another ruler who used the title Senapati[citation needed] or Admiral. 1390?–1417?[verification needed] [citation needed] [citation needed]
Suko[116][verification needed] Lakan Suko (or also known as Sukwu (朔霧) means "northern mist", according to the Dongxi Yanggao (東西洋考) Abdicated.)[citation needed] 1417?–1430?[verification needed] [citation needed] [citation needed]
Rajah Lontok Rajah Lontok was the husband and co-regent of Dayang Kalangitan. During his reign, Tondo had many achievements and became more powerful; his reign also saw the enlargement of the state's territory.[1] 1430–1450?[not in citation given] Kapampangan folk tradition[1] Kapampangan folk tradition[1]
Dayang or Sultana Kalangitan[1] Legendary "Lady of the Pasig"[1] who ruled Namayan and later became the grandmother of the Kapampangan ruler known as "Prinsipe Balagtas"[1] Legendary antiquity / c. 1450–1515[not in citation given] Kapampangan folk tradition[1] Kapampangan folk tradition[1]

Notable Princes and Ministers of Tondo

Name Title held/Notes From Until
Kasumuran[28]
(uncertain)
Known in Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a Lord Minister or an ancient name of Bay, Laguna c. 900 AD ?
Gat Bishruta[28] Known in Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Lord Minister of Binwagan, or Binagonan, Rizal, which is represented the pardon of Namwaran by the chief of Medang. c. 900 AD ?
Ganashakti[28] Known in Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Lord Minister of Pila, Laguna who cleared the family of Namwaran from the salary-related debts of 1 Katî and 8 Suwarna. c. 900 AD ?
Luis Amanicaloa[2] Prince of Tondo - 1588
Felipe Amarlangagui[2] The Commander and chief in Katanghalan - 1588
Lord Balingit[2] the Lord of Pandakan - 1588
Pitongatan
(Also known as Pitong-gatang) [2]
Prince - Minister of Tondo, Manila - 1588
Lord Kapulong[2] Lord of Candaba, Pampanga - 1588
Juan Basi[2] Lord of Tagig - 1588
Esteban Taes
(also known as Ginoong Tasi)[2]
the Lord of Bulakan - 1588

See also

Additional reading

Bolkiah Era

Spanish Era

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tomas L., Magat Salamat, Archived from the original on October 27, 2009, retrieved 2008-07-14 
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Coordinates: 14°37′38″N 120°58′17″E / 14.62722°N 120.97139°E / 14.62722; 120.97139



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