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List of children of the Presidents of the United States

List of children of the Presidents of the United States

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_children_of_the_Presidents_of_the_United_States
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Theodore Roosevelt and Edith Roosevelt with their children. Children from left to right: Quentin, Theodore Jr., Archie, Alice, Kermit, and Ethel.

This is a list of children of U.S. Presidents, including stepchildren and alleged illegitimate children. All full names with married names are given. Currently there are 31 living presidential children, the oldest Lynda Bird Johnson Robb, the youngest Barron Trump. Two presidential children, John Quincy Adams and George W. Bush, have became president in their own right.

Presidential children have been studied individually, and as a class. As individuals, they are more often notable in their own right than most individuals: They disproportionately circulate amongst political and social leaders and the wealthier classes, and they are more likely to be scrutinized as part of celebrity culture. Additionally, as individuals they frequently have significant influence on other notable family members. So, for instance, a child who may appear otherwise non-notable as an individual may, in fact, have had a significant influence on the child's parent: acting as a sounding board, or having behavioral issues that affected the parent's beliefs or performance. John Scott Harrison is the only person to be both the child and the parent of a U.S. President, being the son of William Henry Harrison and the father of Benjamin Harrison.

As a class, the children of presidents have also occasioned significant study. Study has generally followed two paths: The issue of what access and inclusion within the circles of power does to individuals' lives, aspirations, and outcomes;[1] and the issue of their influence on society and politics.[2]

18th century

George and Martha Washington

No children together. The following were raised by Washington as his own:
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Parke Custis
nickname: Jacky
Nov. 27, 1754 – Nov. 5, 1781 Eleanor Calvert Stepson; father was Daniel Parke Custis

Father of:

Martha Parke Custis
nickname: Patsy
1756 – June 19, 1773 no spouse Stepdaughter; father was Daniel Parke Custis
Elizabeth Parke Custis
nickname: Eliza
Aug. 21, 1776 - Dec. 31, 1831 Thomas Law Mother of:
  • Elizabeth (1797 - 1822)
  • Unknown number of other children (all died in infancy)
Martha Parke Custis
nickname: Patsy
Dec. 31, 1777 - July 13, 1854 Thomas Peter Mother of:
  • Martha Eliza Angela (1796 - 1800)
  • Columbia Lafayette (1797 - 1820)
  • John Parke Custis (1799 - 1848)
  • George Washington Parke Custis (1801 - 1877)
  • America Pinckney (1803 - 1842)
  • Robert Thomas (1806 - 1807)
  • Martha Custis Castania (1808 - 1809)
  • Brittania Wellington (1815 - 1911)
Eleanor Parke Custis
nickname: Nelly
Mar. 31, 1779 – July 15, 1852 Lawrence Lewis Adopted daughter; daughter of stepson John Parke Custis

Mother of:

  • Frances Parke (1799 - 1875)
  • Martha Betty (1801 - 1802)
  • Lawrence Fielding (1802 - 1802)
  • Lorenzo (1803 - 1847)
  • Eleanor Agnes Freire (1805 - 1820)
  • Fielding Augustine (1807 - 1809)
  • George Washington Custis (1810 - 1811)
  • Martha Eleanor Angela (1813 - 1839)
George Washington Parke Custis
nickname: Wash
Apr. 30, 1781 – Oct. 10, 1857 Mary Lee Fitzhugh Legal ward; son of stepson John Parke Custis

Father of:

John and Abigail Adams

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Abigail Adams
nickname: Nabby or Amelia
July 14, 1765 – Aug. 15, 1813 William Stephens Smith Mother of:
  • William Steuben Smith
  • John Adams Smith
  • Thomas Hollis Smith
  • Caroline Amelia Smith
John Quincy Adams July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848 Louisa Catherine Johnson 6th President of the United States, see below at John Quincy and Louisa Adams
Grace Susanna Adams
nickname: Suky
Dec. 28, 1768 – Feb. 4, 1770 no spouse died of unknown causes
Charles Adams May 29, 1770 – Nov. 30, 1800 Sarah Smith Father of:
  • Susanna Boylston (1796 – 1884)
  • Abigail Louisa Smith (1798 – 1836)
Thomas Boylston Adams Sep. 15, 1772 – Mar. 13, 1832 Ann Harrod Father of:
  • Abigail Smith Adams Angier (1806 - 1845)
  • Marie Adams Harkins (1808 - 1893)
  • Thomas Boylston Adams (1809 - 1837)
  • Elizabeth Coombs Adams (1809 - 1903)
  • Frances Foster Adams (1811 - 1812)
  • Isaac Hull Adams (1813 - 1900)
  • John Quincy Adams (1815 - 1854)
  • Joseph Harod Adams (1817 - 1853)
Elizabeth Adams July 11, 1777 no spouse stillborn

19th century

Thomas Jefferson

with Martha Jefferson[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Martha Jefferson Randolph
nickname: Patsy
Sep. 27, 1772 – Oct. 10, 1836 Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr.

Mother of:

Jane Randolph Jefferson Apr. 3, 1774 – Sep. 1775[3] no spouse died of unknown causes
unnamed son[4] May 28 – June 14, 1777 no spouse died in infancy
Mary Jefferson
nickname: Polly or Maria
Aug. 1, 1778 – Apr. 17, 1804 John Wayles Eppes Mother of Francis Wayles Eppes VII (1801 – 1881)
Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (I) Nov. 3, 1780 – Apr. 15, 1781 no spouse died of an unspecified illness[5]
Lucy Elizabeth Jefferson (II) May 8, 1782 – ca. Oct. 13, 1784[6] no spouse died of whooping cough[6]

with Sally Hemings[edit]

Alleged children with Sally Hemings; see Jefferson DNA data
Child Lifetime Spouse Children
Thomas Jefferson Hemings
nickname: Tom
1790 – 1879 Jemima Price Father of:
Harriet Hemings (I) October 5, 1795 – December 7, 1797 no spouse died of unknown causes
Edy Hemings 1796 no spouse died in infancy
William Beverly Hemings Apr. 1, 1798 – 1873 Darek Joseph one daughter, unknown name
Thenia Hemings December 7, 1799 – ca. 1802 no spouse died in early childhood
Harriet Hemings (II) May 22, 1801 – 1863 unknown  
James Madison Hemings Jan. 18, 1805 – Nov. 26, 1877 Mary Hughes McCoy  
Eston Hemings May 21, 1808 – Jan. 3, 1856 Julia Ann Isaacs Father of John Wayles Jefferson (1835 – 1892)

James and Dolley Madison

No children together, but raised the older of Dolley's 2 sons from her first marriage:

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Payne Todd Feb. 29, 1792 – Jan. 16, 1852 Greta Bunce raised by James Madison; father was John Todd, Jr.
William Temple Todd July 4 – Oct. 14, 1793 no spouse died of yellow fever[7]

James and Elizabeth Monroe

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Eliza Kortright Monroe Dec. 1786 – 1835[8] George Hay  
James Spence Monroe May 1799 – Sep. 28, 1800[9][a] no spouse died after "several days sickness".[9]
Maria Hester Monroe May 20, 1803 – 1850 Samuel Laurence Gouverneur  

John Quincy and Louisa Adams

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
George Washington Adams Apr. 12, 1801 – Apr. 30, 1829 none  committed suicide
John Adams II July 4, 1803 – Oct. 23, 1834 Mary Catherine Hellen Father of:
  • Mary Louisa (December 2, 1828 - July 16, 1859)
  • Georgiana Frances (September 10, 1830 - November 20, 1839)
unnamed son[11] June 29, 1806 no spouse stillborn
Charles Francis Adams Aug. 18, 1807 – Nov. 21, 1886 Abigail Brown Brooks

Served as United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1861-1868)
Father of:

Louisa Catherine Adams Aug. 12, 1811 – Sep. 15, 1812 no spouse died in St. Petersburg, Russia from an unknown illness while her father was serving as Minister to Russia[12][13]

Andrew and Rachel Jackson

No biological children together, adopted two:
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Andrew Jackson, Jr. Dec. 4, 1808 – Apr. 17, 1865 Sarah Yorke adopted at birth; biological son of Severn Donelson
Lyncoya Jackson c. 1811 – June 1, 1828 no spouse adopted Creek Indian orphan,[14] died of tuberculosis
Andrew and Rachel also served as guardians to eight children:
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Samuel Donelson before 1805 – 1817 unknown Orphaned nephews of Rachel, sons of Samuel Donelson who died in 1804
Andrew Jackson Donelson Aug. 25, 1799 – June 26, 1871 Emily Tennessee Donelson
Elizabeth Martin Randolph
Daniel Smith Donelson June 23, 1801 – Apr. 17, 1863 Margaret Donelson
Andrew Jackson Hutchings 1812–1841 Mary Coffee Orphaned grandnephew of Rachel
Caroline Butler before 1804 – 1817 unknown Orphaned children of family friend Edward Butler[15]
Eliza Eleanor Butler Apr. 20, 1791–Nov. 4, 1850 John Donelson[b]
Edward George Washington Butler Feb. 22, 1800–Sep. 5, 1888 Frances Parke Lewis[c]
Anthony Wayne Butler 1803–1824 unknown

Martin and Hannah Van Buren

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Abraham Van Buren Nov. 27, 1807 – Mar. 15, 1873 Angelica Singleton  
John Van Buren Feb. 10, 1810 – Oct. 13, 1866 Elizabeth Vanderpoel Father of:
  • Anna (1842-1923)
Martin Van Buren, Jr. Dec. 20, 1812 – Mar. 19, 1855 no spouse died of tuberculosis
Winfield Scott Van Buren[citation needed] 1814 no spouse died in infancy
Smith Thompson Van Buren Jan. 16, 1817 – 1876 Ellen King James
Henrietta Eckford Irving
7 children between 2 wives
unnamed daughter [17] birth and death date unknown no spouse stillborn

William Henry Harrison

with Anna Harrison[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Bassett Harrison
nickname: Betsy
Sep. 29, 1796 – Sep. 27, 1846 John Cleves Short  
John Cleves Symmes Harrison Oct. 28, 1798 – Oct. 30, 1830 Clarissa Pike[d] 6 children
Lucy Singleton Harrison Sep. 1800 – Apr. 7, 1826[18] David K. Este[19] 4 children
William Henry Harrison, Jr. Sep. 3, 1802 – Feb. 6, 1838[18] Jane Findlay Irwin 2 children
John Scott Harrison Oct. 4, 1804 – May 25, 1878 Lucretia Knapp Johnson 3 children
Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin 10 children, including President Benjamin Harrison (1833 – 1901)
Benjamin Harrison 1806 – June 9, 1840[18] Louisa Smith Bonner  
Mary Raney  
Mary Symmes Harrison Jan. 22, 1809 – Nov. 16, 1842[20] John Henry Fitzhugh Thornton  
Carter Bassett Harrison Oct. 26, 1811 – Aug. 12, 1839 Mary Anne Sutherland  
Anna Tuthill Harrison Oct. 28, 1813 – July 5, 1845[20] William Henry Harrison Taylor[e]  
James Findlay Harrison 1814 – 1817[20] no spouse died of unknown causes

Alleged child with a slave[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Dilsia 1809 – before 1900 Unknown Daughter conceived by one of his slaves.[21]

John Tyler

with Letitia Tyler[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Mary Tyler Apr. 15, 1815 – June 17, 1847 Henry Lightfoot Jones  
Robert Tyler Sep. 9, 1816 – Dec. 3, 1877 Elizabeth Priscilla Cooper  
John Tyler III Apr. 27, 1819 – Jan. 26, 1896 Martha Rochelle  
Letitia Tyler
nickname: Letty
May 11, 1821 – Dec. 28, 1907 James Allen Semple no children
Elizabeth Tyler
nickname: Lizzie
July 11, 1823 – June 1, 1850 William Nevison Waller  
Anne Contesse Tyler[22] Apr. 5 – July 1825 no spouse died in infancy
Alice Tyler Mar. 23, 1827 – June 8, 1854 Henry Mandeville Denison  
Tazewell Tyler Dec. 6, 1830 – Jan. 8, 1874 Nannie Bridges  

Alleged child with a slave[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John William Dunjee 1833 – 1903 Lydia Ann Taylor allegedly the son of John Tyler; unproven as of 2011[23]

with Julia Tyler[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
David Gardiner Tyler
nickname: Gardie
July 12, 1846 – Sep. 5, 1927 Mary Morris Jones  
John Alexander Tyler
nickname: Alex
Apr. 7, 1848 – Sep. 1, 1883 Sarah Griswold Gardiner  
Julia Gardiner Tyler Dec. 25, 1849 – May 8, 1871 William H. Spencer  
Lachlan Tyler Dec. 2, 1851 – Jan 26, 1902 Georgia Webb Powell  
Lyon Gardiner Tyler Aug. 24, 1853 – Feb. 12, 1935 Anne Baker Tucker Father of:
  • John Tyler
  • Elizabeth Gilmour Tyler
  • Julia Gardiner Tyler
Sue Ruffin Father of:
  • Lyon Gardiner Tyler, Jr.
  • Harrison Ruffin Tyler
  • Henry Tyler

Both Lyon Jr. and Harrison were still alive as of March 6, 2018, meaning John Tyler is, by far, the earliest president with living grandchildren.[24]

Robert Fitzwalter Tyler Mar. 12, 1856 – Dec. 30, 1927 Fannie Glenn at least 3 children
Pearl Tyler June 20, 1860 – June 30, 1947 William Munford Ellis  

James and Sarah Polk

The Polks are the only presidential couple to never have children while together, biologically, adopted or from previous marriage.

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Marshall Tate Polk, Jr. May 15, 1831 – Feb. 29, 1884 Evalina McNeal Bills Guardianship/Legal ward, nephew, son of brother Marshall Tate Polk
Sarah Polk Fall April 1, 1847 – July 22, 1924 George William Fall Shortly after the death of the president Sarah unofficially adopted a great niece

Zachary and Margaret Taylor

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Anne Margaret Mackall Taylor Wood Apr. 9, 1811 – Dec. 2, 1875 Dr. Robert Crooke Wood Mother of four children, including John Taylor Wood (1830 – 1904)
Sarah Knox Taylor
nickname: Knoxie
1813  – Sep. 15, 1835[25] Jefferson Finis Davis died from malaria as a newlywed
Octavia Pannel Taylor[26] [f] Aug. 15, 1816 – Sep. 1820[25] no spouse died from malaria [g]
Margaret Smith Taylor July 17, 1819 – Oct. 1820 no spouse died from malaria [h]
Mary Elizabeth Taylor
nickname: Betty
Apr. 20, 1824 – July 25, 1909 William Wallace Smith Bliss Betty Bliss served as President Taylor's White House hostess, as the First Lady was an invalid.
Philip Pendleton Dandridge  
Richard Scott Taylor
nickname: Dick
Jan. 27, 1826 – Apr. 17, 1879[25] Louise Marie Myrthe Bringier Father of Richard, Zachary, Louise, Elizabeth, and Myrthe.

Millard and Abigail Fillmore

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Millard Powers Fillmore Apr. 25, 1828 – Nov. 15, 1889 no spouse  
Mary Abigail Fillmore
nickname: Abby
Mar. 27, 1832 – July 26, 1854 no spouse Served as Acting First Lady during her mother's illness

Franklin and Jane Pierce

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Franklin Pierce, Jr. Feb. 2 – Feb. 4, 1836 no spouse died in infancy
Frank Robert Pierce Aug. 27, 1839 – Nov. 14, 1843 no spouse died of typhus fever
Benjamin Pierce Apr. 13, 1841 – Jan. 6, 1853 no spouse died in train accident in front of his parents, weeks before his father was inaugurated

James Buchanan

No biological children, and never married
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Mary Elizabeth Speer Lane 1826 – 1855 George Washington Baker Adopted daughter;
niece (daughter of sister Jane Buchanan and Elliot Tole Lane)
Harriet Rebecca Lane May 9, 1830 – July 3, 1903 Henry Elliott Johnston Adopted daughter;
niece (daughter of sister Jane Buchanan and Elliot Tole Lane);
served as Acting First Lady

Mother of:

  • James Buchanan Johnston
  • Henry Elliott Johnston

Abraham and Mary Lincoln

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Robert Todd Lincoln Aug. 1, 1843 – July 26, 1926 Mary Eunice Harlan Served as Secretary of War under the administrations of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur.

Father of:

Edward Baker Lincoln
nickname: Eddie
Mar. 10, 1846 – Feb. 1, 1850 no spouse died of "chronic consumption"
William Wallace Lincoln
nickname: Willie
Dec. 21, 1850 – Feb. 20, 1862 no spouse died from typhoid fever
Thomas Lincoln III
nickname: Tad
Apr. 4, 1853 – July 15, 1871 no spouse The cause of Tad Lincoln's death has been reported as possibly any one of the following:

Andrew and Eliza Johnson

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Martha Johnson Oct. 25, 1828 – July 10, 1901 David Trotter Patterson  
Charles Johnson Feb. 19, 1830 – Apr. 4, 1863 no spouse  
Mary Johnson May 8, 1832 – Apr. 19, 1883 Daniel Stover  
William Browne
Robert Johnson Feb. 22, 1834 – Apr. 22, 1869 no spouse died from suicide
Andrew Johnson, Jr. Aug. 5, 1852 – Mar. 12, 1879 Bessie May Kumbaugh  

Ulysses and Julia Grant

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Frederick Dent Grant May 30, 1850 – Apr. 12, 1912 Ida Marie Honoré Father of:
Ulysses S. Grant, Jr.
nickname: Buck
July 22, 1852 – Sep. 25, 1929 Frances Josephine Chaffee Father of 5 children, including Ulysses Simpson Grant IV (1893 – 1977)
America Workman Will no children
Ellen Wrenshall Grant
nickname: Nellie
July 4, 1855 – Aug. 30, 1922 Algernon Charles Frederick Sartoris Mother of:
  • Grant Grenville Edward Sartoris (1875 – 1876)
  • Algernon Edward Sartoris (1877 – 1907)
  • Vivien May Sartoris (1879 – 1933)
  • Rosemary Alice Sartoris (1880 – 1914)
Frank Hatch Jones  
Jesse Root Grant Feb. 6, 1858 – June 8, 1934 Elizabeth Chapman Father of two, including Chapman Grant (1887 – 1983)
Lillian Burns

Rutherford and Lucy Hayes

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Sardis Birchard Austin Hayes Nov. 4, 1853 – Jan. 24, 1926 Mary Nancy Sherman  
James Webb Cook Hayes Mar. 20, 1856 – July 26, 1934 Mary Otis Brinkerhoff Miller  
Rutherford Platt Hayes June 24, 1858 – July 31, 1937 Lucy Hayes Platt  
Joseph Thompson Hayes
nickname: Jody
Dec. 21, 1861 – June 24, 1863 no spouse died of dysentery
George Crook Hayes Sep. 29, 1864 – May 4, 1866 no spouse died of scarlet fever
Frances Hayes
nickname: Fanny
Sep. 2, 1867 – Mar. 18, 1950 Harry Eaton Smith  
Scott Russell Hayes Feb. 8, 1871 – May 6, 1923 Maude Anderson  
Manning Force Hayes Aug. 1 – Aug. 28, 1873[33] no spouse died in infancy

James and Lucretia Garfield

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Eliza Arabella Garfield
nickname: Trot
July 3, 1860 – Dec. 3, 1863 no spouse died of diphtheria[34]
Harry Augustus Garfield
nickname: Hal
Oct. 11, 1863 – Dec. 12, 1942 Belle Hartford Mason  
James Rudolph Garfield Oct. 17, 1865 – Mar. 24, 1950 Helen Newell He was Secretary of the Interior during Theodore Roosevelt's administration.
Father of:
  • John Newell Garfield (1892–1931)
  • Newell Garfield (1895–1975)
  • Rudolph Hills Garfield (1899–1946)
Mary Garfield
nickname: Mollie
Jan. 16, 1867 – Dec. 30, 1947 Joseph Stanley Brown  
Irvin McDowell Garfield Aug. 3, 1870 – July 18, 1951 Susan Emmons  
Abram Garfield Nov. 21, 1872 – Oct. 16, 1958 Sarah Granger Williams  
Helen Grannis Matthews  
Edward Garfield Dec. 25, 1874 – Oct. 25, 1876 no spouse died of whooping cough

Chester and Ellen Arthur

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
William Lewis Arthur Dec. 10, 1860 – July 7, 1863 no spouse died of "convulsions"
Chester Alan Arthur II July 25, 1864 – July 18, 1937 Myra Townsend Father of Chester Alan "Gavin" Arthur III (1901-1972)
Rowena Graves
Ellen Hansbrough Herndon Arthur
nickname: Nell
Nov. 21, 1871 – Sep. 6, 1915 Charles Pinkerton  

Grover Cleveland and Maria Halpin

See also section on Grover and Frances Cleveland
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Oscar Folsom Cleveland Sep. 14, 1874 – 1947 unknown name

(married for ten years)[35]

Illegitimate. Cleveland made payments to Maria Halpin after the boy was born.[36]

Grover Cleveland acknowledged possibility he was Oscar Folsom Cleveland's father.[36]
During the 1884 presidential race the controversy prompted Cleveland's opponents to adopt the chant, "Ma, ma, where's my pa?"[37][38]
The child was adopted as "James E. King Jr" into the family of Dr. James King.[35][38][39]

Benjamin Harrison

with Caroline Harrison[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Russell Benjamin Harrison Aug. 12, 1854 – Dec. 13, 1936 May Angeline Saunders born Russell Farnum Lord Harrison

Father of 2, including William Henry Harrison (1896 – 1990)

Mary Scott Harrison
nickname: Mamie
Apr. 3, 1858 – Oct. 28, 1930 James Robert McKee served as acting First Lady
unnamed daughter June 13, 1861 no spouse died in infancy

with Mary Harrison[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Harrison Walker Feb. 21, 1897 – Dec. 25, 1955 James Blaine Walker

Grover and Frances Cleveland

See also section on Grover Cleveland and Maria Halpin
Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Ruth Cleveland
nickname: Baby Ruth
Oct. 3, 1891 – Jan. 7, 1904 no spouse died of diphtheria
Esther Cleveland Sep. 9, 1893 – June 25, 1980 William Sydney Bence Bosanquet First Presidential child to be born in the White House.
Mother of 2 children, including Philippa Ruth Bosanquet (1920 – 2010)
Marion Cleveland July 7, 1895 – Mar. 10, 1977 William Stanley Dell  
John Harlan Amen
Richard Folsom Cleveland
nickname: Dick
Oct. 28, 1897 – Jan. 10, 1974 Ellen Douglas Gailor  
Jessie Maxwell Black
Francis Grover Cleveland June 18, 1903 – Nov. 8, 1995 Alice Erdman

William and Ida McKinley

Child Lifetime Notes
Katherine McKinley
nickname: Katie
Dec. 25, 1871 – June 25, 1875 died of typhoid fever
Ida McKinley Apr. 1 – Aug. 22, 1873 died in infancy

20th century

Theodore Roosevelt

with Alice Roosevelt[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Alice Lee Roosevelt
nickname: Princess Alice
Feb. 12, 1884 – Feb. 20, 1980 Nicholas Longworth IV Mother of Paulina Longworth (1925 – 1957)

with Edith Roosevelt[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
nickname: Ted
Sep. 13, 1887 – July 12, 1944 Eleanor Butler Alexander Governor General of the Philippines and Governor of Puerto Rico.
Father of 4, including:
Kermit Roosevelt Oct. 10, 1889 – June 4, 1943 Belle Wyatt Willard Father of 4, including:
Ethel Carow Roosevelt Aug. 13, 1891 – Dec. 10, 1977 Richard Derby Mother of:
  • Richard Jr. (1914 – 1922)
  • Edith Roosevelt Derby (1917 – 2008)
  • Sarah Alden (1920 – 1999)
  • Judith Quentin Derby (1923 – 1973)
Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt
nickname: Archie
Apr. 10, 1894 – Oct. 13, 1979 Grace Lockwood Father of 4, including:
Quentin Roosevelt
nickname: Quentyquee or Quinikins
Nov. 19, 1897 – July 14, 1918 no spouse died in combat in World War I

William and Helen Taft

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Robert Alphonso Taft Sep. 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953 Martha Wheaton Bowers US Senator and perennial Presidential Candidate
Father of:
Helen Herron Taft Manning Aug. 1, 1891 – Feb. 21, 1987 Frederick Johnson Manning Mother of:
  • Helen Taft Manning (1921– 2013)
  • Caroline Manning (b. 1925)
Charles Phelps Taft II Sep. 20, 1897 – June 24, 1983 Eleanor Kellogg Chase Mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio
Father of:
  • Eleanor Kellogg Taft (1918 – 2002)
  • Sylvia Howard Taft (1920 – 2008)
  • Seth Chase Taft (1922 – 2013)
  • Lucia Chase Taft (1924 – 1955)
  • Cynthia Herron Taft
  • Rosalyn Rawson Taft (1930 – 1941)
  • Peter Rawson Taft III

Woodrow and Ellen Wilson

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Margaret Woodrow Wilson
nickname: Nistha
Apr. 16, 1886 – Feb. 12, 1944 no spouse Served as acting First Lady for a brief period
Jessie Woodrow Wilson Aug. 28, 1887 – Jan. 15, 1933 Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. Mother of:
Eleanor Randolph Wilson Oct. 16, 1889 – Apr. 5, 1967 William Gibbs McAdoo Mother of:
  • Ellen Wilson McAdoo (1915 - 1946)
  • Mary Faith McAdoo (1920 - 1988)

Warren G. Harding

with Florence Harding[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Marshall Eugene DeWolfe
nickname: Pete
Sep. 22, 1880 – Jan. 1, 1915 Esther Naomi Neely stepson from Florence's first marriage, to Henry Athenton DeWolfe

with Nan Britton[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Elizabeth Ann Britton
nickname: Emma or Ann
Oct. 22, 1919 – Nov. 17, 2005 Henry Edward Blaesing Illegitimate daughter of Warren G. Harding, proven by DNA testing in 2015[40]

Calvin and Grace Coolidge

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
John Coolidge Sep. 7, 1906 – May 31, 2000 Florence Trumbull Father of:
  • Cynthia Coolidge Jeter (1933–1989)
  • Lydia Coolidge Sayles (1939–2001)
Calvin Coolidge, Jr. Apr. 13, 1908 – April 7, 1924 no spouse died of blood poisoning

Herbert and Lou Hoover

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Herbert Clark Hoover, Jr. Aug. 4, 1903 – July 9, 1969 Margaret Ava Watson Served as Under Secretary of State (October 4, 1954 - February 5, 1957) in the Eisenhower Administration. Variously named as "Herbert Hoover, Jr.,"[41] "Herbert Charles Hoover,"[42] and "Herbert Clark Hoover."[43]

Father of:

  • Margaret Ann Hoover (1926-2011)
  • Herbert "Pete" Hoover III (1927-2010)
  • Joan Leslie Hoover (1930-2002)
Allan Henry Hoover July 17, 1907 – Nov. 4, 1993 Margaret Coberly Father of:
  • Andrew Hoover (1938-2013)
  • Allan Henry Hoover Jr. (b. 1940)
  • Lou Henry Hoover (1943-2012)

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt May 3, 1906 – Dec. 1, 1975 Curtis Bean Dall Mother of:
Clarence John Boettiger Mother of John Roosevelt Boettiger (b. 1939)
James Addison Halsted  
James Roosevelt
nickname: Jimmy
Dec. 23, 1907 – Aug. 13, 1991 Betsey Maria Cushing Father of Sara Delano Roosevelt (b. 1932)
Romelle Theresa Schneider Father of James Roosevelt, Jr. (b. 1945)
Gladys Irene Owens  
Mary Lena Winskill  
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. (I) Mar. 18 – Nov. 8, 1909 no spouse died as an infant
Elliott Roosevelt Sep. 23, 1910 – Oct. 27, 1990 Elizabeth Browning Donner Father of William Donner Roosevelt (1932–2003)
Ruth Josephine Googins Father of:
  • Ruth Chandler Roosevelt (Lindsley) (b. 1934)
  • Elliott "Tony" Roosevelt Jr. (b. 1936)
  • David Boynton Roosevelt (b. 1942)
Faye Margaret Emerson  
Minnewa Bell  
Patricia Peabody  
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. (II) Aug. 17, 1914 – Aug. 17, 1988 Ethel du Pont Father of:
Suzanne Perrin  
Felicia Schiff Warburg  
Patricia Luisa Oakes  
Linda McKay Stevenson  
John Aspinwall Roosevelt Mar. 13, 1916 – Apr. 27, 1981 Anne Lindsay Clark Father of:
  • Haven Clark Roosevelt
  • Anne Sturgis "Nina" Roosevelt (b. 1942)
  • Sara Delano "Sally" Roosevelt (1946–1960)
  • Joan Lindsay Roosevelt (1952–1997)
Irene Elder Boyd

Harry and Bess Truman

Child Lifetime Spouse Note Place of Birth
Mary Margaret Truman Feb. 17, 1924 – Jan. 29, 2008 Elbert Clifton Daniel, Jr. Mother of:
  • Clifton Truman Daniel (b. 1957)
  • William Wallace Daniel (1959–2000)
  • Harrison Gates Daniel (b. 1963)
  • Thomas Washington Daniel (b. 1966)
Independence, Missouri

Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Doud Dwight Eisenhower
nickname: Icky
Sep. 24, 1917 – Jan. 2, 1921 no spouse died of scarlet fever San Antonio, Texas
John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower Aug. 3, 1922 – Dec. 21, 2013 Barbara Jean Thompson Served as United States Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971.

Father of:

Denver, Colorado
Joanne Thompson

John and Jackie Kennedy

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Arabella Kennedy Aug. 23, 1956 no spouse stillborn
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy born Nov. 27, 1957 Edwin Arthur Schlossberg Served as United States Ambassador to Japan from 2013 to 2017.

Mother of:

Manhattan, New York
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr.
nickname: John-John
Nov. 25, 1960 – July 16, 1999 Carolyn Jeanne Bessette killed in an airplane crash Washington, D.C.
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy Aug. 7 – Aug. 9, 1963 no spouse died after a premature birth Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts

Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Lynda Bird Johnson born Mar. 19, 1944 Charles Spittal Robb Currently the oldest living presidential child

Mother of:

  • Lucinda Desha Robb (b. 1968)
  • Catherine Lewis Robb (b. 1970)
  • Jennifer Wickliffe Robb (b. 1978)
Washington, D.C.
Luci Baines Johnson born July 2, 1947 Patrick John Nugent Mother of:
  • Patrick Lyndon Nugent (b. 1967)
  • Nicole Marie Nugent (b. 1970)
  • Rebekah Johnson Nugent (b. 1974)
  • Claudia Taylor Nugent (b. 1976)
Ian Johnstone Turpin

Richard and Pat Nixon

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Patricia Nixon
nickname: Tricia
born Feb. 21, 1946 Edward Ridley Finch Cox Mother of Christopher Nixon Cox (b. 1979) Whittier, California
Julie Nixon born July 5, 1948 Dwight David Eisenhower II Mother of: Washington, D.C.

Gerald and Betty Ford

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Michael Gerald Ford born Mar. 14, 1950 Gayle Ann Brumbaugh Father of:
  • Sarah Joyce (b. 1979)
  • Rebekah Elizabeth (b. 1982)
  • Hannah Gayle (b. 1985)
John Gardner Ford
nickname: Jack
born Mar. 16, 1952 Juliann Felando Father of:
  • Christian Gerald (b. 1997)
  • Jonathan August (b. 1999)
Steven Meigs Ford born May 19, 1956 no spouse East Grand Rapids, Michigan
Susan Elizabeth Ford born July 6, 1957 Charles Vance Mother of:
  • Tyne Mary (b. 1980)
  • Heather Elizabeth (b. 1983)
Washington, D.C.
Vaden Bales

Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
John William Carter
nickname: Jack
born July 3, 1947 Juliet Langford Father of: Portsmouth, Virginia
Elizabeth Brasfield  
James Earl Carter III
nickname: Chip
born Apr. 12, 1950 Caron Griffin Father of James Earl Carter IV (b. 1977) Honolulu, Hawaii
Ginger Hodges Father of Margaret Alicia Carter
Becky Payne
Donnel Jeffrey Carter
nickname: Jeff
born Aug. 18, 1952 Annette Jene Davis Father of:
  • Joshua Jeffrey Carter
  • Jeremy Davis Carter (1987-2015)
  • James Carlton Carter
New London, Connecticut
Amy Lynn Carter born Oct 19, 1967 James Gregory Wentzel Mother of Hugo James Wentzel (b. 1999) Plains, Georgia

Ronald Reagan

with Jane Wyman[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Maureen Elizabeth Reagan Jan. 4, 1941 – Aug. 8, 2001 John Filippone   Los Angeles, California
David Sills  
Dennis C. Revell Mother of:
  • Margaret "Rita" Mirembe Revell (adopted)
Michael Edward Reagan (adopted) born Mar. 18, 1945 Pamela Gail Putnam
Colleen Sterns Father of:
  • Cameron Reagan (b. 1978)
  • Ashley Reagan (b. 1983)
Christine Reagan June 26, 1947 died shortly after birth

with Nancy Reagan[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Place of Birth
Patti Davis born Oct. 21, 1952 Paul Grilley (1984–1990) Los Angeles, California
Ronald Prescott Reagan
nickname: Ron
born May 20, 1958 Doria Palmieri (died 2014)

George H. W. and Barbara Bush

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
George Walker Bush born July 6, 1946 Laura Lane Welch 46th Governor of Texas (1995–2000) and 43rd President of the United States, see below at George W. and Laura Bush New Haven, Connecticut
Pauline Robinson Bush
nickname: Robin
Dec. 20, 1949 – Oct. 11, 1953 died of leukemia Compton, California
John Ellis Bush
nickname: Jeb
born Feb. 11, 1953 Columba Garnica Gallo 43rd Governor of Florida (1999–2007)

Father of:

Midland, Texas
Neil Mallon Bush born Jan. 22, 1955 Sharon Smith Father of:
Maria Andrews  
Marvin Pierce Bush born Oct. 22, 1956 Margaret Conway Molster Father of:
  • Marshall Lloyd Bush (b. 1986) (adopted)
  • Charles Walker Bush (b. 1989) (adopted)
Dorothy Walker Bush
nickname: Doro
born Aug. 18, 1959 William LeBlond Mother of:
  • Samuel Bush "Sam" LeBlond (b. 1984)
  • Nancy Ellis "Ellie" LeBlond (b. 1986)
Harris County, Texas
Robert P. Koch Mother of:
  • Robert David Koch (b. 1993)
  • Georgia Grace "Gigi" Koch (b. 1996)

Bill and Hillary Clinton

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Chelsea Victoria Clinton born Feb. 27, 1980 Marc Mezvinsky Mother of:
  • Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky (b. 2014)
  • Aidan Clinton Mezvinsky (b. 2016)
Little Rock, Arkansas

21st century

George W. and Laura Bush

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Barbara Pierce Bush born Nov. 25, 1981 Unmarried Dallas, Texas
Jenna Welch Bush Henry Chase Hager Mother of:
  • Margaret Laura Hager (b. 2013)
  • Poppy Louise Hager (b. 2015)

Barack and Michelle Obama

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Malia Ann Obama born July 4, 1998 Unmarried Class of 2021 at Harvard University Chicago, Illinois
Natasha Obama
Nickname: Sasha
born June 10, 2001 Unmarried

Donald Trump

with Ivana Trump[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Donald John Trump Jr.
Nickname: Don
born December 31, 1977 Vanessa Kay Haydon Trustee of The Trump Organization along with Eric.

Father of:

  • Kai Madison Trump (b. 2007)
  • Donald John Trump III (b. 2009)
  • Tristan Milos Trump (b. 2011)
  • Spencer Frederick Trump (b. 2012)
  • Chloe Sophia Trump (b. 2014)
Manhattan, New York
Ivanka Marie Trump born October 30, 1981 Jared Corey Kushner Assistant to the President

Mother of:

  • Arabella Rose Kushner (b. 2011)
  • Joseph Frederick Kushner (b. 2013)
  • Theodore James Kushner (b. 2016)
Eric Frederick Trump born January 6, 1984 Lara Lea Yunaska Trustee of The Trump Organization along with Don Jr.

Father of:

  • Eric Luke Trump (b. 2017)

with Marla Maples[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Tiffany Ariana Trump born October 13, 1993 Unmarried College graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, her father's alma mater. West Palm Beach, Florida

with Melania Trump[edit]

Child Lifetime Spouse Notes Place of Birth
Barron William Trump born March 20, 2006 Unmarried Between January to June 2017, Barron did not reside in the White House and chose to stay in Manhattan with his mother so that he could complete his school year. Youngest living child of any president.[44] Manhattan, New York

Living presidential children

As of April 2018, 31 presidential children are living. In order of their ages, they are:

  Current First Child

Name Birth President
Lynda Bird Johnson Robb (1944-03-19) March 19, 1944 (age 74) Lyndon B. Johnson
Michael Reagan (1945-03-18) March 18, 1945 (age 73) Ronald Reagan
Tricia Nixon Cox (1946-02-21) February 21, 1946 (age 72) Richard Nixon
President George W. Bush (1946-07-06) July 6, 1946 (age 71) George H. W. Bush
Luci Baines Johnson (1947-07-02) July 2, 1947 (age 70) Lyndon B. Johnson
Jack Carter (1947-07-03) July 3, 1947 (age 70) Jimmy Carter
Julie Nixon Eisenhower (1948-07-05) July 5, 1948 (age 69) Richard Nixon
Michael Gerald Ford (1950-03-14) March 14, 1950 (age 68) Gerald Ford
James E. Carter III (1950-04-12) April 12, 1950 (age 68) Jimmy Carter
John Gardner Ford (1952-03-16) March 16, 1952 (age 66) Gerald Ford
Jeff Carter (1952-08-18) August 18, 1952 (age 65) Jimmy Carter
Patti Davis (1952-10-21) October 21, 1952 (age 65) Ronald Reagan
Governor Jeb Bush (1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 65) George H. W. Bush
Neil Bush (1955-01-22) January 22, 1955 (age 63)
Steven Ford (1956-05-19) May 19, 1956 (age 61) Gerald Ford
Marvin P. Bush (1956-10-22) October 22, 1956 (age 61) George H. W. Bush
Susan Ford (1957-07-06) July 6, 1957 (age 60) Gerald Ford
Caroline Kennedy (1957-11-27) November 27, 1957 (age 60) John F. Kennedy
Ron Reagan (1958-05-20) May 20, 1958 (age 59) Ronald Reagan
Dorothy Bush Koch (1959-08-18) August 18, 1959 (age 58) George H. W. Bush
Amy Carter (1967-10-19) October 19, 1967 (age 50) Jimmy Carter
Donald Trump Jr. (1977-12-31) December 31, 1977 (age 40) Donald Trump
Chelsea Clinton (1980-02-27) February 27, 1980 (age 38) Bill Clinton
Ivanka Trump (1981-10-30) October 30, 1981 (age 36) Donald Trump
Barbara Pierce Bush (1981-11-25) November 25, 1981 (age 36) George W. Bush
Jenna Bush Hager (1981-11-25) November 25, 1981 (age 36)
Eric Trump (1984-01-06) January 6, 1984 (age 34) Donald Trump
Tiffany Trump (1993-10-13) October 13, 1993 (age 24)
Malia Obama (1998-07-04) July 4, 1998 (age 19) Barack Obama
Sasha Obama (2001-06-10) June 10, 2001 (age 16)
Barron Trump (2006-03-20) March 20, 2006 (age 12) Donald Trump

The most recent Presidential child to die was John Eisenhower, the son of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who died on December 21, 2013. He was also the father-in-law of Julie Nixon Eisenhower, another Presidential child.

Notes

  1. ^ James Monroe wrote that his only son died on September 28, 1800. The date of September 28, 1801 that is said to appear on the James Spence Monroe gravestone in the St. John's Episcopal Church (Richmond, Virginia) churchyard is not contemporaneous to the child's death, the location of the actual grave remains unknown.[10]
  2. ^ John Donelson was not related to Rachel Donelson Jackson
  3. ^ Frances Parke Lewis was the step great-granddaughter of George Washington[16]
  4. ^ Clarissa Pike was the daughter of Zebulon Pike, who discovered Pike's Peak
  5. ^ William Henry Harrison Taylor was Anna Tuthill Harrison's cousin
  6. ^ Some sources spell this name as Octavia Pannill Taylor.[27]
  7. ^ Octavia's illness was described by her father as "bilious fever."[28]
  8. ^ Margaret's illness was described by her father as "bilious fever."[28]

References

  1. ^ See, e.g., Angelo, First Families.
  2. ^ See, e.g., Zwicker, "America's Royalty", Presidential Studies Quarterly.
  3. ^ "Thomas Jefferson's Family". Jefferson Quotes & Family Letters (Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series). Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc. Retrieved February 3, 2018. 
  4. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 19. 
  5. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 21. 
  6. ^ a b "Lucy Jefferson (1782-1784)". monticello.org. Thomas Jefferson Foundation. Retrieved January 14, 2018. 
  7. ^ "Dolley Madison". Biography. 
  8. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 27. 
  9. ^ a b Monroe, James. "James Spence Monroe". The Papers of James Monroe. University of Mary Washington. Retrieved February 2, 2018. An unhappy event has occurr’d which has overwhelmed us with grief. At ten last night our beloved babe departed this life after several days sickness 
  10. ^ Stuart, Leibiger, ed. (2012). A Companion to James Madison and James Monroe. John Wiley & Sons. 
  11. ^ Roberts, Cokie (2008). Ladies of Liberty: The Women Who Shaped Our Nation. 
  12. ^ "Louisa Catherine Adams: A Father Reflects on the Death of his Infant Daughter". Massachusetts Historical Society. Retrieved February 2, 2018. ...had been unwell for weeks. She experienced extreme discomfort due to teething (in his diary, JQA stated she was cutting seven teeth at the same time), had dysentery, and was feverish. 
  13. ^ "First Lady Biography: Louisa Adams". National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved February 2, 2018. 
  14. ^ "Tennessee History Classroom - President Andrew Jackson". www.tennesseehistory.com. 
  15. ^ "Children | Andrew Jackson's Adopted Family". The Hermitage. Retrieved February 22, 2018. 
  16. ^ Plater, David D. (2015). The Butlers of Iberville Parish, Louisiana: Dunboyne Plantation in the 1800s. LSU Press. pp. 20–21. 
  17. ^ [1], firstladies.org
  18. ^ a b c Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. p. 338. 
  19. ^ Quinn, Sandra L.; Kanter, Sanford (1995). America's Royalty: All the Presidents' Children. Greenwood Publishing. p. 338. 
  20. ^ a b c Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. p. 339. 
  21. ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006, p.2
  22. ^ http://www.historybyzim.com/2013/07/john-tyler-most-children/
  23. ^ Forever Free: Abraham Lincoln's Journey to Emancipation at library.buffalo.edu/exhibits/ForeverFree/index.htm
  24. ^ "A US president born in 1790 has two living grandsons". CBS. March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
  25. ^ a b c "Margaret Taylor Biography :: National First Ladies' Library". www.firstladies.org. 
  26. ^ Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. p. 342. 
  27. ^ Bauer, K. Jack (1993). Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwest. LSU Press. p. 30. 
  28. ^ a b Bauer. Zachary Taylor: Soldier, Planter, Statesman of the Old Southwes. p. 38. 
  29. ^ Davenport, Don (2001). In Lincoln's Footsteps: A Historical Guide to the Lincoln Sites in Illinois. Big Earth Publishing. p. 210. 
  30. ^ Emerson, Jason. Giant in the Shadows: The Life of Robert T. Lincoln. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2012, P. 478.
  31. ^ "Abraham Lincoln and Chicago (Abraham Lincoln's Classroom)". The Lincoln Institute. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  32. ^ "The Lincoln Boys". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2012. 
  33. ^ Gould, Lewis L. (2014-02-04). American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy. Routledge. ISBN 9781135311483. 
  34. ^ Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. p. 348. 
  35. ^ a b Kendall, Joshua (2016). First Dads: Parenting and Politics from George Washington to Barack Obama. Grand Central Publishing. p. 147. 
  36. ^ a b Sibley, Katherine A.S., ed. (2016). A Companion to First Ladies. John Wiley & Sons,. p. 269. 
  37. ^ Matthew Yglesias (January 15, 2010). "Historic Sex Scandals". ThinkProgress. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
  38. ^ a b Serratore, Angela (September 26, 2013). "President Cleveland's Problem Child". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian/The Smithsonian. Retrieved October 11, 2016. 
  39. ^ Lachman, Charles (2011). A Secret Life: The Sex, Lies, and Scandals of President Grover Cleveland. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 202. 
  40. ^ "DNA Is Said to Solve a Mystery of Warren Harding's Love Life". The New York Times. 13 August 2015. 
  41. ^ Cameron Hawley, "The Honored Name I Bear?", Life, Oct 11, 1954
  42. ^ "Hoover Genealogy - Herbert Hoover National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)". 
  43. ^ "Herbert Clark Hoover (1903-1969)". Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  44. ^ Haberman, Maggie (November 20, 2016). "Melania and Barron Trump Won't Immediately Move to White House". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2016. 
  • Bonnie Angelo, First Families: The Impact of the White House on Their Lives, ISBN 0-06-056356-7
  • William A. Degregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, Wings Books, 1991
  • Doug Wead, All the President's Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families, Atria Books, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-7434-4631-3

Further reading

  • Larry D. Underwood. All the President's Children, Dageford Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-886225-85-0 (a children's book)
  • Quinn-Musgrove, Sandra L. and Kanter, Sanford, America's Royalty: All the President's Children, Olympic Marketing, ISBN 0-313-23645-3


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