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The Gulden was the currency of the states of southern Germany between 1754 and 1873. These states included Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Frankfurt and Hohenzollern. This specific Gulden was based on the Gulden or florin used in the Holy Roman Empire during the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern period.
Shortly after the introduction of the Conventionsthaler in 1754, various southern German states introduced the Kreuzer Landmünze. The originally planned Kreuzer (also called the Conventionskreuzer), was to have been worth 1⁄120 of a Conventionsthaler (see Austro-Hungarian Gulden), whereas the Kreuzer Landmünze was worth 1⁄144 of a Conventionsthaler (5⁄6 of a Conventionskreuzer), allowing the states to adopt a more debased currency. For accounting purposes, there was a Gulden of 60 Kreuzer Landmünze which was worth 5⁄12 of a Conventionsthaler. This Gulden (equivalent to 1⁄24 of a Cologne mark of silver) was used for accounting in southern German states and appeared on banknotes but was not issued as a coin.
In 1837, the southern states of Germany formed a currency union. They adopted as the unit of currency the Gulden of 60 Kreuzer, slightly debased to 1⁄24 1⁄2 of a Cologne mark of silver. This allowed an exchange rate with the Prussian Thaler of 1 3⁄4 Gulden to the Thaler. Coins were issued in denominations of half Gulden, one Gulden, one Thaler and two thaler (also denominated as 3 1⁄2 Gulden), together with smaller pieces.
In 1857, the Vereinsthaler was introduced with a silver content fractionally smaller than the Prussian standard. This led to a change of design for the thaler coins of southern Germany, but no changes were made to the other denominations.
The southern German Gulden was withdrawn following German unification and decimalization. One Mark was equal to 35 Kreuzer.
|South German currency