The Galaxy-like & equivocal match, Epistemological theory

Hamid Rajaei's epistemological theory (In brief) tries to explain the position of concepts which gathered in human knowledge capacity via sense, wisdom, experience, justified documents & texts, etc. in human knowledge basket. To understand his theory, it`s necessary to present some introductions:[9][10]

1.Reality is the state of things as they actually exist. Rajaei believes that the reality is expressed at least in two ways. The first is the reality itself, which is considered as an absolute state and full simplicity. Accordingly, reality concept isn`t complex and neither can it be not divided into pieces nor is it transformed to further simplicity, for example the total concept of water with no details. The second can be expressed as the first type but, whereas the intended reality is a significant cognition after experiences and interacts with its concepts, it can potentiality be explained as complex and “prolix” (the expression which is used) for example water can have different concepts which are explained in different sciences, but we don`t notice them all. There is also another term for reality, when for example we close our eyes and, regardless of specific case we understand and confirm that reality exists without any regard to complexity and simplicity, just absolute reality. This concept refers to the reality which is incomprehensible and its dimensions are unknown and it calls human perceptual apparatus to modesty, as we generally prefer not to think about it or enclose just leave it.

2.Knowledge, as it is well-known, is a phenomenon which is made of Justified true belief and appears on two levels:

  • When I think.

  • When we think.

The first refers to propositions which are more private and they are personal conceptions with proven reasons in the same personal area. When I prove a thing via my perceptual apparatus an unshared belief which is informal will exist. The second is propositions which are shared and more similar to academic discourses. In Rajaei`s opinion, the most important issue in epistemology is to recognize neither true propositions nor false propositions, this is an important issue but not the most. The most important issue is to recognize a reasonable and honest belief, how much of reality this proposition can report with its subject and predicate concepts. In other words, how much our conceptions correspond to this reality through the proposition which is formed in my mind or our mind. The main concern is the level of correspondence. In his opinion, there are two major issues in epistemology:

1. Whether proposition is true or false

2. How much true proposition expresses and depicts reality

A bit of knowledge exists when I or we (shared as WE) can prove it (for ourselves or other) but he considers reality as a colossal globe, and considers justified true propositions as plates which stick to the globe (if proposition is false, it will be like a plate which never stick to the globe) so the quantity of the adhesive surface to globe is the exact thing which he considers as equivocal match. He believes the most important problem in human knowledge is that we are not God! [11][12] And the serious problem of human knowledge is any kind of restriction and insufficiency in our perceptual apparatus.

3.The kinds of Concept: There is a common division in perception: imaginary perception and acknowledged perception. Rajaei’s theory is based on images not acknowledge. (will be explained) He says: There are two kinds of concepts: simple concept and complex and galaxy-like concept. The simples are the concepts which we use in our daily conversations, for example when we ask somebody: “fetch me some water, please!” (When we want to drink it). But the complex or prolix concepts (An expression which Hamid Rajaei uses in his essays) [13]) are full of components which try to explain scientific or applicable issues of a subject. We use (express or recall) prolix concepts when for example we want to recall lots of knowledge about water (base on current need).[14] The details, which are significantly abundant, are branched or chained and form some parts of our knowledge system. For example the concept of “water” is different in each course such as chemistry, physiology, philosophy, cosmology, theosophy, etymology, climatology, ontology, etc. that make our total hydrology! A prolix concept tries to replay too many questions, because it is its Raison D’être. Therefore the prolix concepts are technical & they are studied in some branches of knowledge.

What is the Galaxy-Like, theory?

In Rajaei’s theory,[11] all prolix concepts are galaxy-like which themselves are full of galaxy-like meaning too. (Unlike common and simple concepts) He gives the example of water for both. He believes that the concept of water in academic consideration includes too many concepts that each one is in the situation which the others and itself demand, just like the position of the planets in a galaxy. For example the concepts of water, as H2O, as a liquid that is the base of our life, it’s meaning in theosophy; it's concepts in metaphysics, cosmology etc., all feed and form our hydrology. This complex concept is named "prolix" in his theory.

Galaxies and supper Galaxies

Hamid Rajaei believes that the prolix propositions are interacting and changing in their galaxy shape. The prolix propositions are like mirrors which are shinning and giving light to each other and sometimes making question for each other. For example water is as a small galaxy, the concept of liquid and life which is considered the role of water in them. Comparing the concept of water and the knowledge which we have from its chemical element with other elements (which have galaxy-like concepts) create other colossal galaxy which may be called supper galaxies.

Stable and unstable concepts (changeable)

It is essential to know that epistemology theory of galaxy-like doesn`t mainly concern with acknowledgment, but it focuses on concepts which produce meaningful galaxies through prolix conception. So, galaxy-like theory doesn’t result in changeability of all propositions. Rajaei agrees that there are many natural or unnatural propositions which logically remain stable without any change or renewal. Because being galaxy-like concepts and propositions never suggests a total change in all sections of human knowledge. We may believe in some propositions forever but we may also see too many changes in whole galaxy and supper galaxy system. To clarify the issue better and remove the paradox, Rajaei categorizes all kinds of changes in human knowledge. The stability of acknowledgments depends on their proofs except natural propositions which are independent, but they are subject to change due to being galaxy-like and their totality and relation with other concepts (not only change in any acknowledgment), therefore Rajaei believes that galaxies are always changing in their totality, and accordingly he saves his theory from skepticism and relativity.[14]

Types of changes in human knowledge

Rajaei counts many kinds of possible changes in these galaxies. He accredits the number of changes through extrapolation. Accordingly he permits to be added other cases to his list. On the other hand his list is drawn up by a functional method so he permits some cases in the class to interact. He claims that the understanding of combination and interaction of these cases is not easy. ‏He gives some examples for every case of change which is useful to understand what he means:

‏1‏.Change into opposition(Water is H2O2 into: Water is not H2O2 but H2O‏(‏

2.‏Validity change: it means to confirm the acknowledgement of a proposition more (The earth planet is spherical into: the earth is more likely spherical because it is reported that ships disappear on the down side from beach) ‏ ‏

3.‏Attenuation change: change into the weakening of connections between components (The earth is flat into: earth is less likely flat due to disappearing ships.)

‏4‏.Correctness change (rightness, rectification from errors) Sun is a living creature like us into: the viability of sun is a superstition)

‏5‏.Change into better and deep understanding (like our understanding of electricity in past and our deep and complicated understanding of it today)

‏6‏.Geographic change and concept situation: it means that our understanding changes into concepts and subjects configuration.(Conceptual communication just belongs to human, into: not only can human communicate, but also animals. This is a new configuration in the galaxy-like concept of communication)

‏7‏.Similarity change: When we find a new similarity between two subjects (for example we find out that the atomic changes which happened in the sun is similar to the changes which are in a nuclear reactor)

‏8‏.Dissimilarity change: finding a dissimilarity and difference between two subjects (for example: we find out that in contrast to other subjects, water freezing follows expansion not contraction and is dissimilar with the other things)

9.Change in perspective dimensions of a concept: a new dimension of a phenomena was discovered (To be aware that time is the fourth dimension of timetabling subjects) Science usually makes a dimension of a phenomena more explicit.

10.I‏increasing change: to know that all kinds of microbes are more than known microbes. To know that there are living organisms in other planets, so our knowledge increased.

‏11‏.Self-conscious change into unselfconscious change: to know unconsciously that things with dangerous faces (appearance) can be dangerous (acting) too and we may consciously explain this subject in terms of physiognomy and aesthetics.

‏12‏.Prolix propositions change into supper simplified concept.(all of our knowledge and images about an automobile engine change into a very simple concept of energy transformer) [10][11]

Creativity theory, The prolix concepts and the simplifiers, Epistemological attitude

Rajaei has defined the creativity as a mind-skill, equipping us to make any new idea in any area. Then creativity is essentially not a kind of knowledge or science, but it is a skill kind, may be improved through various methods.(Hamid Rajaei 2008)[15][16] (An epistemological theory, the phases and contextual planning)

Hence, creativity is an almost steady ability to generate a new concept with no time, age, kind, manner, way, technique, advantage, efficacy and subject limitation and restriction. But only precisely, is related to novelty and recency. So it only identified by "generating recent or new concept". Whether seems so floppy and ineffective or very serious and polestar. Whether established on an existent concept made before, or some is fundamentally made up recently. Whether created and made up by mind power or made by mind ready-made material before (and assembled with a realizable bit difference) (Hamid Rajaei 2008)[16] (Albeit in battlefield of philosophers)

This theory identifies the phases and contextual planning and is family with (his) epistemological theory (By Hamid Rajaei 2008) [9] on creativity process, with no serious disagreement, the other theorized phases, considering them as material of analyzing. It maybe posed‏ as: ‏

1.Excitation with a serious emotion to create something.

‏Contextual planning:

Being under a kind of shock or mystique, a kind serious need, hard pressed or poverty, a kind of lovelorn; are necessary here: "nothing brings nothing.

2.Prolix phase: Gathering Information.

Contextual planning:

Having wide study, a good memory and soul-mind's buffer, being expert in the subject; are so good here.

3.High Prolix phase: to analyze & extract.

Contextual planning:

Having a brain storming & open mind, to be able to combine lateral thinking and the logic and algorithmic kind, watching the parallelism and differentiates.

4.The I.G.C phase. Including 3 sub phases‏:‏

‏4/1‏.Homogenizing the prolix concepts.

4/2.Willy-nilly awaiting revelation.

4/3.Achieving the I.G.Cs (immature and glossy concept) The IGCs are very torchbearer, snappy, troublemaker rumbustious & tricky.

‏Contextual planning:

Having solitude, private, purification, fervent prayer, God love, loving the solution, or having a kind of pure love, etc. is very facilitative here.

5.Achieving simplifiers, letting the brain and mind have an interchange rest, & make or encounter the new simplifier.

6.Fertilizing the simplifiers, with "Orbiting around the issue in 360 degrees, horizontally and vertically" & hunting between simplifiers and prolix concepts.

‏Contextual planning:

Being aware of the kind and sorts of transition and interactions among) the concepts is the cane and template for fertilizing and making the concepts couple or uncouple and how to do with each other‏.‏ ‏ ‏ 7.Achieving the elementary and sophomoric new concepts.

‏Contextual planning:

Endure and maturity, fixity and flexibility in a mix of stability, jocularity, are very facilitative and troubleshooter here.

8.Exposing sophomoric concepts to more prolix concepts. (In fact, a sub process)

‏Contextual planning:

Being disinterested, Having universal connections and a work-group dictations, critical arguments and not to be in solitude and private etc.… is so useful but imperative here.

9.Getting the SH Concept (satisfactory harvest: till the next serious conflict)

‏Contextual planning:

Having an Idea of epistemology, psychology of epistemology, not being slack believe, sectarian, opinionated, especially to producing software and pragmatic lookout for the hardware made them, and avoiding credulous or incredulous too, are the main wardrobe of any one in the section.[16] ‏However creativity is an intercourse and interaction of the brain and soul. The brain parts function has basic impress maybe known through the case studies and study of the characters and turnover of right or left hemisphere of brain.[9][16]

Prolix concepts and Super simplifiers

Hamid Rajaei believes, when we indagate, any creativity stages (for ex. as Graham Wallas's model: preparation, incubation intimation illumination & Verification or Teresa Amabile's) we can draw out (especially in terms 2, 3, 4 & 5) that we extract the information with super simplifiers, as a natural process in our brain system and common habits. A super simplifier is a nutrient and luxurious image of a concept, made by the brain and mind. It makes them:

1.To release itself from the inconvenience caused with bushiness & density of information, extra calculating, extra nerve activation and force.(with mental-spiritual context)

2.To achieve a paradigmatic and concept, that is intact and spiritual. (With effusive spiritual context) aiming to examine the unity & purity. In this position simplifiers go to play as a unifier.[17]

Therefore, prolix concepts (verbal meaning: too many words and therefore boring[18]) in his euphemism are complicated means or a galaxy of meaning (In accordance with his epistemological theory: The galaxies theory) entangles the cognitive system, so, considered "too many & boring ", by appropriately of the stage: being compacted therefore simplified)

Issues of creativity and religious beliefs

Creativity as a dynamic process and some parts of religious belief as permanent beliefs, produce some issues and troubles for each other. This is approximately a new study branch in epistemological and cultural attitudes in creativity, Posed by Hamid Rajaei. He has explained some kinds of issues: Religious societies through misunderstanding the religions propositions, gravel the creativity power (The obvious sample is the medieval age as he exemplifies). In the other hand marginalizing the religion with irregular creativity is another issue here. Understanding the Channels of creativity in religious system conduces us very much to avoid the two deviousness. Rajaei suggested .[19]

Published works

1. Did you know? (A video on Imam Mahdi & Jessie)[20]

2.Istgah (A TV series, Animation 200 Parts) Watch the video!

3. To stay Asuraiean (10 pert TV program)[21]

4. Understanding Lateral thinking.(article)[22]

5. TV & Secularism (article) Read or download!

6. Understanding Dying... (Book)

7. Critical argument on Iranian culture (Book)look at Persian essay of Hamid.

8.About lateral thinking.(ISI article)[[23]

9. What is aesthetics?( download article)

10. Pathology of TV series in Iran.(article)[24]

11.The concept of creativity[11][16]

12.A rummage in creativity[11][16] Based on an Epistemological theory‏, the phases and contextual planning‏.[25]

13.The Galaxy-like theory. (On epistemology)[14][26]

14. Issues of creativity and of religious belief.[27]

15.Creativity, Lateral thinking & Religious belief.(A book :آفرینندگی، تفکر جانبی و باور دینی) Published By IRIB.[28]

See also


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  10. ^ a b Epistemology#The Galaxy-like .26 Gradation of Correspendence.2C theory

  11. ^ a b c d e

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  13. ^ Creativity

  14. ^ a b c

  15. ^ /fa/articles.html?&PN_96=1

  16. ^ a b c d e f

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  25. ^ Creativity#.E2.80.8FEpistemological theory.E2.80.8F.2C the phases and contextual planning.E2.80.8F

  26. ^ Epistemology#The Galaxy-like theory

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