Glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide (GLP-1), a peptide secreted from intestinal enteroendocrine L cells, control systemic blood glucose homeostasis in humans after a meal. Therapies based on the GLP-1 are novel treatment options for type 2 diabetes that act through a variety of complementary mechanisms. Unlike other diabetes drugs, the insulinotropic effect of GLP-1 is self-limiting, as it falls once the plasma glucose level is lowered to normal range, reducing the risk of hypoglycemia. In addition, GLP-1 regulates postprandial glucose elevation through several other mechanisms, including promoting insulin gene transcription, stimulating pancreatic β-cell proliferation and neogenesis, inhibiting β-cell apoptosis, and blocking glucagon release.It also prevents gastric emptying and induces satiety, leading to body weight decrease.
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