Optoelectronic materials are materials that process, store and transmit information using photons or electrons as carriers. They are mainly used in the field of optoelectronics, such as optical fibers, optically active crystal materials, optoelectronic storage and display materials. Optoelectronic materials play a fundamental and core role in optoelectronics, and optoelectronic materials will bring information technology to a new era.
The traditional optoelectronic materials are mainly include optical functional materials, laser materials, luminescent materials, photoelectric information transmission materials, photoelectric storage materials, photoelectric conversion materials, photoelectric display materials and photoelectric integrated materials. The following are the classifications of several new types of optoelectronic materials.
Silicon microelectronic material
Silicon (Si) materials are the foundation of microelectronics technology. From the perspective of improving the performance and price ratio of silicon integrated circuits (ICs), increasing the diameter of Czochralski silicon single crystals is still a major trend in the development of silicon single crystals in the future. Further narrowing the feature size of the device, increasing the speed and integration of silicon ICs and developing ultra-high purity, large-diameter and defect-free silicon epitaxial wafers will become the mainstream in the development of silicon material.
Silicon-based optoelectronic integration
Silicon-based optoelectronic integration has always been the goal pursued by human, and how to improve the luminous efficiency of silicon-based materials is the key. After long-term efforts, breakthroughs were made in the research of silicon-based heterojunction injection of high-efficiency luminescence and electric pump lasing in 2003, leading to the dawn of silicon-based optoelectronic integration.
Wide-bandgap semiconductor material
The third generation (high temperature, wide band gap) semiconductor materials mainly refer to Group III nitrides, silicon carbide (SiC), zinc oxide (ZnO) and diamond. They are not only the ideal materials for developing high-frequency, high-temperature resistant, and radiation-resistant semiconductor microelectronic devices and circuits, but also the excellent short-wavelength optoelectronic materials for Group III nitrides and ZnO.
Nano (low dimensional) semiconductor materials
In addition to bulk materials, nano (low-dimensional) semiconductor materials usually refer to two-dimensional superlattices, quantum well materials, one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dot materials. They are artificial semiconductor materials that do not exist in nature. The development and application of MBE, MOCVD technology and micro-fabrication technology have created conditions for the preparation of nano-semiconductor materials and the development of quantum devices.
Recording and information materials
Magnetic recording materials are still the most important storage materials at present. The information materials are being developed into organic/inorganic composite materials, inorganic/organic composites, structural materials and quantum devices from the original bulk material-thin layer, ultra-thin layer microstructure material-set material, device and circuit.
At present, organic materials are receiving considerable attention due to their applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices such as organic thin-film transistors, light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells and flexible printed electronic devices. With the rapid development of technology, optoelectronic materials are also developing at an alarming rate. The innovation of optoelectronic materials will surely lead us to a new round of technological revolution, and will also bring mankind into a new era of development.