ML RR-S2 CDA ammonium salt is an inducer of STING (stimulator of interferon genes)

ML RR-S2 CDA shows enhanced type I IFN production over CDA in THP-1 human monocytes. In contrast, the dithio, mixed-linkage cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) derivatives (ML RR-CDA, ML RR-S2 CDG, and ML RR-S2 cGAMP) potently activate all five hSTING alleles, including the refractory hSTINGREF and hSTINGQ alleles. ML RR-S2 CDA induces the highest expression of IFN-β and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 on a molar equivalent basis, as compared to endogenous ML cGAMP and the TLR3 agonist poly I:C. ML RR-S2 CDA is also found to induce aggregation of STING and induce phosphorylation of TBK1 and IRF3 in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM). ML RR-S2 CDA induces significantly higher levels of IFN-α when compared to ML cGAMP[1].

ML RR-S2 CDA shows higher anti-tumor control than the endogenous ML cGAMP. A dose response of the ML RR-S2 CDA compound is performed in B16 tumor-bearing mice, which identifies an optimal antitumor dose level that also elicites maximum tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses, and improves long-term survival to 50%[1].

Cryopreserved hPBMCs are thawed and 1×106 cells per well are plated in a 96 well plate in RPMI media supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% non-essential amino acids, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, L-glutamine, 10 mM HEPES buffer, 1 mM Sodium Pyruvate, 0.055 mM β-ME at 37°C with 5% CO2. Cells are stimulated with 10 μM ML RR-S2 CDA or ML cGAMP for 6 hours and supernatants are harvested. Supernatants are diluted 1:2 and assayed for IFN-α protein using Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) Human Flex Set. Data is collected using a FACSVerse cytometer and analyzed by FCAP Array Software[1].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

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